تأثیر شوری ناشی از کلرید سدیم و بور آب آبیاری بر عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف گیاه خرفه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

امروزه با افزایش جمعیت و نیاز بیشتر به مواد غذایی بهره‌برداری از زمین‌های شور که بخش زیادی از مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک را در برگرفته است، امری اجتناب ناپذیر است. خرفه گیاهی است هالوفیت، یکساله و علفی که به خوبی در خاک‌های شور رشد می‌کند. بور از عناصر ضروری در گیاهان است و به مقدار کم مورد نیاز گیاهان است. با توجه به وسعت زمین‌های شور در ایران، گیاه خرفه این پتانسیل را دارد که به عنوان یک گیاه دارویی، سبزی و حتی علوفه در منابع خاک و آب شور مورد کشت قرار گیرد به منظور بررسی تأثیر شوری ناشی از کلرید سدیم و میزان بور آب آبیاری بر جذب عناصر غذایی گیاه خرفه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 35 تیمار و سه تکرار به صورت گلخانه‌ای اجرا گردید. سطوح شوری ناشی از کلرید سدیم آب آبیاری شامل 5/0(شاهد)، 5/2، 5، 10، 15،20 و 25 دسی زیمنس بر متر و سطوح بور شامل صفر (شاهد)، 5/0، 1، 2و 4 میلی‌گرم در لیتر بودند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش میزان شوری ناشی از کلرید سدیم آب آبیاری تا 5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر، وزن تر و خشک و همچنین غلظت عناصر کلسیم، منیزیم در بخش هوایی گیاه خرفه افزایش یافت ولی افزایش میزان شوری به بیش از این حد سبب کاهش این صفات شد. غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم در بخش هوایی گیاه با افزایش شوری ناشی کلرید سدیم کاهش یافت. با افزایش سطوح بور وزن تر و خشک بخش هوایی و غلظت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، پتاسیم، کلسیم و منیزیم در بخش هوایی گیاه خرفه کاهش ولی غلظت عنصر فسفر افزایش یافت. با توجه به نتایج این مطالعه کشت گیاه خرفه در مناطقی که شوری نسبتاٌ بالا (5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر) و بور آن کم باشد توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of sodium chloride induced salinity and boron of irrigation water on yield and concentration of macro nutrients in purslane

نویسنده [English]

  • mosayeb vafaee 1
چکیده [English]

With increasing the population of the world and demand for more food, utilization of saline soils, which include covers a large area of the arid and semiarid regions, is inevitable. Purslane is a halophyte and annual herbaceous plant that grows well in saline soils. Boron (B) is an essential element in plants. According to the extent of saline land in Iran, Purslane has the potential as a medicinal plant, vegetable and forage to be cultivated in saline soil and water resources. To evaluate the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl induced salinity and B levels of irrigation water on growth and nutrient absorption of purslane, a factorial experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 35 treatments and three replications and total of 105 units was conducted in the greenhouse. NaCl induced salinity and B levels of irrigation respectively water were 0.5 as control, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 dS/m and 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/l, respectively. The results showed that with increasing NaCl induced salinity up to 2.5 dS/m, wet and dry weight and the concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) increased in aerial plant part but higher levels of salinity reduced these characteristics. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in aerial part decreased with increasing NaCl induced salinity. With increasing B levels of irrigation water, wet and dry weight and the concentration of N, P, Ca and Mg in aerial plant part reduced; whereas concentration of P increased in aerial part of pursalne. According to the results of this study, Purslane cultivation is recommended in areas with relatively high salinity (2.5 dS. m -1) and B is low.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Boron
  • Sodium Chlorid
  • Macronutrients
  • Purslane
  • Yield
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