تحلیل توزیع مکانی فلزات سنگین مس، روی و آرسنیک در خاک اطراف کارخانه ذوب مس خاتون‌آباد شهر بابک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی/ دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته کرمان

چکیده

با توجه به مسائل و مشکلات زیست‌محیطی به‌وجود آمده از فعالیت کارخانه ذوب مس خاتون‌آباد شهر بابک استان کرمان و اثرات سوء آن روی خاک منطقه، این تحقیق با هدف تعیین نحوه توزیع و الگوی مکانی پراکنش عناصر سنگین مس، روی و آرسنیک در خاک محدوده این کارخانه انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری از خاک به‌صورت شبکه‌بندی منظم (با ابعاد 1000 متر در1000 متر) از عمق ( صفر تا پنج سانتی‌متری) و آنالیزهای آزمایشگاهی با استفاده از دستگاه ICP انجام شد. به‌طوری‌که میانگین غلظت مس، روی و آرسنیک در منطقه 13/731، 06/72 و 13/40 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم بود. تحلیل توزیع مکانی آلاینده‌های مورد بررسی با استفاده روش‌های زمین آماری و در محیط نرم‌افزار GS+ و GIS انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که با توجه به بالا‌بودن نسبت (C/C0+C)‏، به میزان 99/0، 83/0 و 99/0 به‌ترتیب برای عناصر مس، روی و آرسنیک، همبستگی مکانی قوی در همه عناصر مورد بررسی با مدل واریوگرام کروی وجود دارد. در این رابطه، شعاع تأثیر به‌ترتیب برای عناصر سنگین مس، روی و آرسنیک 2480، 10830، 2380 متر (بالا بودن میزان شعاع تأثیر تأثیردر مورد عنصر آرسنیک به علت سیالیّت بالای آن در خاک می‌باشد) و مقدار آستانه نیز به‌ترتیب 94/0، 55/4 و 87/0 می‌باشد. نقشه توزیع مکانی این عناصر نیز حاکی از عدم آلودگی خاک اطراف کارخانه به عنصر روی و آلودگی شدید آن به عناصر مس و آرسنیک بود. به‌طوری‌که گستردگی مکانی آن‌ها در جهت جنوب غربی کارخانه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial distribution analysis of Copper, Zinc and Arsenic heavy metals in the soil of surrounding areas of Khatoon-abad copper smelter industry

نویسنده [English]

  • Sedigheh Mohamadi
scientific board/ Graduate University of Advanced Technology
چکیده [English]

According to harmful environmental effects of Khatoon-abad copper smelter industry activities on soil quality; this research was conducted to determine the spatial distribution pattern of Zn, Cu and As heavy metals of soil in the surrounding areas of this industry company. Soil sampling was designed in a systematic network plan from 0-5 cm horizon, and laboratory analysis was carried out by ICP. Mean of Zn, Cu and As metals concentrations was obtained 731.13, 72.06, and 40.13 (mg/kg), respectively. Statistical and geostatistical analysis was conducted by Gs+ and GIS softwares. The results showed that there exist strong spatial correlations with spherical variography model for all of heavy metals due to high amount of (C/C0+C) ratio that equal 0.99, 0.83, and 0.99, respectively for Cu, Zn, and As heavy metals. Regarding to mobility of studied heavy metals in soil, the effective ranges equal to 2480, 2380 and 1083 (meter) and the Sill content equal 0.94, 4.55 and 0.87 (%) were obtained for Cu, Zn, and As respectively. Furthermore, the zonation map of contaminants illustrated that the amount of Zn pollution problem is not remarkable and there is a sever contamination of Cu and As with the spatial extending direction of the southwest of Khatoon-abad industry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geostatistics
  • Geographic Information System
  • Effective range
  • Spherical variogram
References

Abdollahi S., Delavar M.A. and Shekari P. 2013. Spatial distribution mapping of Pb, Zn and Cd and soil pollution assessment in Anguran area of Zanjan province. Journal of Water and Soil, 26 (6): 1410-1420. (In Persian)

 Amini F.L., Mirghaffari N. and Eshghi Malayeri B. 2011. Nickel concentration in soil and some natural plant species around Ahangaran lead and Zinc mine in Hamedan. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13 (1): 11-20. (In Persian)

ATSDR. 2004. Toxicological Profile for Copper. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal register Press. Atlanta, Georgia, 314 p.

ATSDR. 2005. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal register Press. Atlanta, Georgia, 352 p.

ATSDR. 2011. Priority List of Hazardous Substances. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal register Press. Atlanta, Georgia, 220 p.

Babai Y., Alavi Moghaddam M., Qasemzadeh F. and Arbabzvar M.H. 2008. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Kashmar Koohsorkh. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(3): 29-36. (In Persian)

Bagherifam S., Lagzian A., Fotovat A. and Khorasani R. 2014. Immobile making of a calcareous soil by modified Zeolite with Fe, Al and Mn. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16 (2): 39-54. (In Persian)

Butterfield D.A. and Boyd-Kimball D. 2004. Amyloid β-peptide (1-42) contributes to the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration found in Alzheimer disease brain. Brain Pathology, 14(4): 426-432.

Carter M. R. 1993. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Lewis Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 823p.

Chen S., Zhou Q.X., Sun L.N., Sun T.H. and Chao L. 2007. Speciation of Cadmium and Lead in soils as affected by metal loading quantity and aging time. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 79(2): 184-187.

 Damangir A.A., Baghvand A., Monavari S.M. and Moattar F. 2015. Metal pollution assessment in soil samples of mining area, Shahr-E-Babak, Iran. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 3(1): 24-34.

Duzgoren A.N.S., Wong A., Aydin Z., Song M. and Li X.D. 2006. Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the urban environment of Guangzhou, SE China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 28(2): 375-391.

Einollahi Peer F. and Pakzad S. 2012. Survey of Cu concentration in some grassland plants (Lactuca serriola, Artemisia sieberi and Astragalus bisulcatus) around the Khatoon Abad melting Copper mine in Shahr Babak. Journal of Human and Environment, 10 (21): 55-63. (In Persian)

Erfan manesh M. and Afyuni M. 2000. Environmental Pollution (Water, Soil, Air), Arkan Press, Tehran, 330 p.

Farias S.S., Casa V.A., Vázquez C., Ferpozzi L., Pucci G.N. and Cohen I.M. 2003. Natural contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in ground waters of Argentine Pampean Plain. Science of the Total Environment, 309 (1): 99-187.

 Faiz F., Tufail M., Tayyeb Javed M., Chaudhry M.M. and Siddique N. 2009. Road dust pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway. Pakistan Microchemical Journal, 92 (2): 186-192.

 Gheshlaghi A., Ghayuraneh M. and Sayareh A.R. 2012. Metal contamination in soils range from the melting zinc. Proceedings of 6th Conference and Exhibition on Environmental Engineering, Tehran, Iran.

Hakanson L. 1980. Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14(1): 975-1001.

 Hasani pak A.A. 1998. Geostatistics. Academic Press, Tehran, pp. 314.

 Helmhart M., O’Day P.A., Garcia-Guinea J., Serrano S. and Garrido F. 2012. Arsenic, Copper, and Zinc leaching through preferential flow in mining-impacted soils. Soil Chemistry, 76 (2): 449-462.

Hendricks Franssen H.J.W.M., Van Eijnsbergen A.C., and Stien A. 1997. Use of spatial prediction techniques and fuzzy classification for mapping soil pollutants. Geoderma, 77: 243-262.

Kelly W.P. 1951. Alkali Soils-Their Formation, Properties and Reclamation. (3rd Ed.), Reinhold Press. New York, 92 p.

Keshavarzi B., Moore F. and Ahsani Estahbanati N. 2015. Soil trace elements contamination in the vicinity of Khatoon Abad copper smelter, Kerman Province, Iran. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 7(3):194-204.

Khodakarami L., Soffianian A.R., Mohamadi Towfigh E. and Mirghafari N.A. 2014. Study of heavy metals concentration Copper, Zinc and Arsenic soil using RS and GIS techniques (Case study: Kaboudarahang, Razan and Khonjin- Talkhab catchment in Hamedan province). RS and GIS for Natural Resources Journal, 5 (3): 45-55. (In Persian)

Lee S.H., Kim E.Y., Park H.J., Yun J. and Kim G. 2011. In situ stabilization of arsenic and metal contaminated agricultural soil using Industrial by-products. Geoderma, 161: 1-7.

Ling Shi G., Qing Lou L., Zhang Sh., Wei Xia X. and Sheng Cai Q. 2013. Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(12): 8435-8445.

Michaud AM., Chappellaz C. and Hinsinger P. 2008. Copper phyto toxicity affects root elongation and iron nutrition in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). Plant and Soil, 310: 151-165.

 Moor F., Dehghani S. and Keshavarzi B. 2015. Trace element concentration in soils and plants in the vicinity of Miduk copper mine. Journal of Economic Geology, 6(2): 305-314. (In Persian)

Mosavi E., Safyanian A.R., Mirghafari N. and Khodakarami L. 2011. Investigation of spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface soil of Hamadan province. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 25 (4): 323- 336. (In Persian)

 Mozaffari A.A., Derakhshanfar A. and Salar Amoli J. 2009. Industrial copper intoxication of Iranian fat- tailed sheep in Kerman province, Iran. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 33(2): 113-119.

Mukherjee A., Sengupta M.K., Hossain M.A., Ahamed S., Das B. and Nayak B. 2006. Arsenic contamination in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 24(2): 142-63.

Nyarko B., Dampare S., Serfor-Armah Y., Osae S., Adotey D. and Adomako D. 2008. Biomonitoring in the forest zone of Ghana: the primary results obtained using neutron activation analysis and lichens. International Journal of Environmental Pollution, 32(4): 467-476.

Nikiforova, E.M. and Smirnova, R.S., 1975. Metal technophility and lead technogenic anomalies. In Proceedings of the International Conference Heavy Metals in the Environment, Toronto, C94-96.

Poon H.F., Calabrese V., Scapagnini G. and Butterfield D.A. 2004. Free radicals and brain aging. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 20: 329-359.

Rafiei B., Khodaei A.S., Khodabakhsh S., Hashemi M. and Bakhtiari Nejad M. 2010. Contamination assessment of Lead, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium, Arsenic and Antimony in Ahangaran mine soils, Malayer, west of Iran. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 19: 573-586.

Rahimi G. and Charkhabi A. 2014. Assessment of some heavy metals in paddy soils and their accumulation in the organs of rice in the Lenjan area of Isfahan province. Water and Soil Science, 24 (2): 107-120. (In Persian)

Ravankhah N., Mirzaei R. and Masoum S. 2016. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in surface soil. Journal of Mazandaran University Medicinal Science, 26(136): 109-120. (In Persian)

Rosado J.L., Ronquillo D., Kordas K., Rojas O., Alatorre J. and Lopez P. 2007. Arsenic exposure and cognitive performance in Mexican schoolchildren. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(9): 1371.

 Sakhaee E. A., Behzadi M.J. and Shahrad E. 2012. Subclinical copper poisoning in asymptomatic people in residential area near copper smelting complex. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2 (6): 475-477.

 Shi J., Wang H., Xu J., Wu J., Liu X., Zhu H. and Yu C. 2007. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils: a case study of Changxing, China. Environmental Geology, 52(1): 1-10.

Smith A.H. and Steinmaus C.M. 2009. Health effects of Arsenic and Chromium in drinking water: recent human findings. Annual Review of Public Health, 30: 107-22.

Solgi E, Esmaili-Sari A, Riyahi-Bakhtiari A and Hadipour M. 2012. Soil contamination of metals in the three industrial estates, Arak, Iran.  Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88(4): 634-638.

Tabatabaei J. and Mohammadi F. 2013. Environmental effects of mining industries in Meymeh region North West of Isfahan. APCBEE Procedia, 5: 388-393.

 Tahmuresi M., Sarafi A., Hosseini S.M., Mansouri A. and Mirzayi M. 2010. Evaluation of Bentonite samples in Kerman province. Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, 2 (29); 91-98.

 Takac P., Szabová T., Kozáková Ľ. and Benková M. 2009.  Heavy metals and their bioavailability from soils in the long-term polluted Central Spiš region of SR. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55(4): 167-172.

Tamaki S. and Frankenberger W.T. 1992. Environmental Biochemistry of Arsenic. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 124: 79-110.

Wei B. and Yang L. 2010. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China.  Microchemical Journal, 94(2): 99-107.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2003.  Arsenic in drinking water. Chemical Fact Sheets,part,8-12.

Wu F., Liu Y.L., Xia Y., Shen Z.G. and Chen Y.H. 2011. Copper contamination of soils and vegetables in the vicinity of Jiuhuashan copper mine, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64: 761-769.

 Zhao K., Fu W., Ye Z., and Zhang C. 2015. Contamination and spatial variation of heavy metals in the soil-rice system in Nanxun County, Southeastern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2): 1577-1594.

Zhao Q., Wang Y., Cao Y., Chen A., Ren M. and Ge Y. 2014.  Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, eastern China. Science of the Total Environment, 10: 470-471.