بررسی آزمایشگاهی اصلاح یک خاک شور- سدیمی با استفاده از ستون‌های آبشویی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی

2 آبیاری و زهکشی

3 هیات علمی گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

4 هیات علمی گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

وجود املاح فراوان و سدیم از معضلات اصلی خاک‌های مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌باشد. استفاده از بهسازهای آلی و معدنی به عنوان راهکار اساسی برای تسریع آبشویی و اصلاح این خاک‌ها به شمار می‌رود. این مطالعه به منظور بررسی قابلیت استفاده از مواد آلی (5 درصد جرمی) و گچ ( معادل نیاز گچی، gkg-1 12/6 ) برای اصلاح یک نمونه خاک شور - سدیمی در شرایط ستون آبشویی انجام شد. نمونه خاک از اراضی رها شده‌ کشاورزی در حاشیه غربی دریاچه ارومیه انتخاب شد. آبشویی خاک با استفاده از آب معمولی به صورت اضافه نمودن پی در پی حجم آب منفذی انجام شد. غلظت کاتیون‌ها به همراه هدایت الکتریکی و نسبت جذب سدیم در زه‌آب مربوط به هر حجم آب منفذی، اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین، مقادیر این پارامترها پس از اتمام آبشویی در طول ستون آبشویی شده تعیین شدند. مطابق نتایج در تیمار شاهد به دلیل وجود سدیم تبادلی زیاد و تخریب ساختمان خاک، امکان آبشویی برای بیش از 2 حجم آب منفذی فراهم نشد. نبست جذب سدیم در نمونه‌ خاک پس از انجام آبشویی در تیمارهای گچ و گچ به همراه ماده آلی (22 حجم آب منفذی)، از (meql-1)0.5 5/62 به ترتیب به (meql-1)0.5 08/1 و (meql-1)0.5 51/1 کاهش یافت که نشان دهنده کارآمدی گچ و مواد آلی در اصلاح خاک سدیمی است. تیمار ماده آلی نیز کاهش 85 درصدی در مقدار نسبت جذب سدیم را نشان داد که می‌تواند مربوط به آزاد شدن نسبی کلسیم از آهک موجود در خاک و جایگزینی آن با سدیم تبادلی باشد. مقدار هدایت الکتریکی نمونه خاک پس از آبشویی صرف‌نظر از نوع تیمار، به زیر حد بحرانی dSm-1 4 رسید که نشان دهنده‌ کارایی آبشویی برای حذف نمک‌های محلول از پروفیل خاک است. در مجموع استفاده از گچ به همراه ماده آلی برای اصلاح موثر خاکهای منطقه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Laboratory investigation on reclamation of a saline-sodic soil by column leaching experiments

نویسندگان [English]

  • farrokh asadzadeh 3
  • Hojjat Ahmadi 4
3 Professor Department of Soil Science, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Soluble salts and sodium are the main problems of the soils in arid and semi-arid regions. Application of organic and mineral conditioners is a basic strategy to accelerate the leaching and reclamation of these soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of organic matter and gypsum in the reclamation of a saline and sodic soil using leaching columns. Soil sample was selected from abandoned agricultural lands in the western edge of Urmia lake. Soil leaching was conducted continuously based on the pore volume. The cations, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio in each pore volume of drain water were measured. In addition, these parameters were determined after the completion of leaching throughout leaching columns. The results indicated that in the control treatment, leaching couldn’t be continued for more than two pore volumes which may be attributed to effect of the high exchangeable sodium on destruction of soil structure and blocking of the soil pores. The sodium adsorption ratio of soil sample after leaching in gypsum and gypsum with organic matter treatments, decreased from 62.5 (meql-1)0.5 to 1.08 and 1.51 (meql-1)0.5, respectively, which reflects the effectiveness of gypsum and organic materials in sodic soil reclamation. The organic matter treatment also decreased the sodium adsorption ratio by 85 percent which may be related to the release of calcium from the lime in the soil and replacing of the exchangeable sodium. After leaching, the electrical conductivity of the soil samples was below the critical level, 4 dSm-1, regardless of the applied treatment type which represents the leaching efficiency to remove soluble salts from the soil profile. In general, application of the gypsum, equal to gypsum requirement, and organic matter in the leaching process, is recommended for effective reclamation of soils in the study area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gypsum
  • Urmia lake
  • Leaching
  • Organic matter
  • Pore volume
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