مطالعه میکرومورفولوژی اشکال گچ و کربنات کلسیم و کانی شناسی رس در خاک های با مواد مادری مختلف در جنوب استان گیلان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان.

2 گروه مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت.

3 هیئت علمی گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

4 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز.

چکیده

خاک‌های گچی و آهکی بخش مهمی از خاک‌های مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک جنوب استان گیلان را شامل می‌شود. این مطالعه به منظور بررسی اشکال گچ و آهک در خاک‌های اراضی تپه ماهوری منطقه علی‌آباد استان گیلان توسط مقاطع نازک میکروسکوپی خاک انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری خاک به صورت کلوخه دست نخورده هوا خشک از مواد مادری گچی- نمکی و آهکی، با سه تکرار از دو موقعیت شیب (شیب‌پشتی و پای‌شیب) و عمق سطحی (20-0 سانتی‌متر) و زیرسطحی (40-20 سانتی‌متر) انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که خاک‌های گچی- نمکی کلاس بافتی سنگین‌تری در مقایسه با خاک‌های آهکی داشتند. نتایج میکرومورفولوژی نشان داد که تعداد حفرات کانال و محفظه و فضولات حیوانی در خاک‌های آهکی بیشتر است که به علت وجود حفرات درشت‌تر و فعالیت بیولوژیکی بیشتر است. عوارض میکرومورفولوژی در خاک‌های گچی- نمکی شامل اشکال صفحات در هم قفل شده گچ، بلورهای عدسی شکل، پندانت گچی، پُرشدگی گچ به صورت متراکم کامل و غیرکامل و غیرپیوسته پراکنده در حفرات و هایپوکوتینگ آهن و منگنز و در خاک‌های آهکی شامل فضولات جانوری، نودول آهن هالو ، قطعات سنگی (لیتوریلیکت)، ندول آهک میکریتیک، مخلوط گچ و آهک به صورت پندانت و انواع اشکال پدوژنیک کلسیت به صورت ستونی، خوشه‌ای، سوزنی و اسپاریتیک می‌باشد. بخش ریز در هر دو خاک عمدتاً دارای بی‌فابریک کریستالیتیک و گاهی استیپل اسپکلت و نامشخص (ایزوتیک) می‌باشد. شاخص تکاملی میکروموفولوژی خاک (مسیکا) نیز نشان داد که هر دو نوع خاک دارای تکامل ضعیف بودند. نتایج کانی‌شناسی رس نشان داد که کانی‌های غالب در دو ماده‌مادری کلریت، ایلیت، ورمیکولیت، اسمکتیت و کانی‌های مخلوط می‌باشد. همچنین حضور کانی پالی‌گورسکایت در خاک‌های گچی- نمکی از موارد اختلاف بین این دو خاک است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Micromorphological study of the gypsum and calcium carbonate features and clay mineralogy in soils with different parent material in south of Guilan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • mastaneh rahimi mashkaleh 1
  • hasan ramezanpour 2
  • Nafiseh Yaghmaeian Mahabadi 3
  • mehdi norouzi 4
1 - Ph.D Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zanjan.
2 Department of Soil engineering Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan.
3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan
4 Former Ph.D student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Tabriz.
چکیده [English]

Gypsiferous and calcareous soils comprise an important part of soil resources in arid and semiarid areas of south of Guilan province. This study in order to investigation of gypsum and lime in soils of the hilly lands of Aliabad region in Guilan province by soil thin sections was performed. Soil sampling as air-dried undisturbed clods from gypsiferous-salty and calcareous parent material with three replicate at two slope positions (back slope and foot slope) and into surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) depths was performed. Results showed that soils with gypsiferous-salty parent material had heavier textural class than the calcareous soils. The results of micromorphology showed that the number of channel and chamber voids and excrements is higher in calcareous soil due to the presence of larger pores and more biological activity. Micromorphological pedofeatures of gypsiferous-salty soils include the forms of gypsum interlocked plates, gypsum lenticular crystals, gypsum pendant, infilling of gypsum as dense complete and incomplete, and loose discontinuous in voids and channel walls and hypo-coating of iron and manganese and in calcareous soils include excrements, halow iron and micritic nodules, rock fragments, gypsum and calcite pendant and different forms of pedogenic calcite as columnar, cluster, needle, micritic and sparitic. The fine fraction in both soils were mainly crystalitic b-fabric and locally stipple speckeld and undifferentiated b-fabric. The micromorphological index for soil evolution index (MISECA) showed that both soils had weak development. Results of clay mineralogy showed that chlorite, illite, vermiculite, smectite and hydroxyl-interlayer minerals were prominent in in both soils. Furthermore, the difference between soils of two parent material was the presence of palygorskite mineral in gypsiferous-salty soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crystallitic b-fabric
  • Gypsum pendant
  • Micritic nodule
  • MISECA index
  • palygorskite
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