تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر میزان جذب فسفر به وسیله گندم و فعالیت آنزیم‌های فسفاتاز اسیدی و قلیایی در خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری خاکشناسی، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران گروه خاکشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه خاکشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب ، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان قزوین، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

کمبود فسفر و نیز کارایی جذب پایین این عنصر در خاک‌های آهکی یکی از مشکلات مهم در سامانه‌های زراعی مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌باشد. به‌منظور بررسی میزان جذب فسفر و فعالیت آنزیم‌های فسفاتاز اسیدی و قلیایی در سه نوع خاک با مقادیر متفاوت فسفر قابل‌جذب (Qazvin1، Qazvin2 و (Dizanو با کاربرد 50 میلی‌گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منابع کودهای گوسفندی، کمپوست زباله ‌شهری و سوپرفسفات ‌تریپل در شرایط گلخانه و تحت کشت گندم، تحقیقی در سال 1394 به‌صورت آزمایش‌های فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار به مرحله اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی بالاتر از اسیدی و در خاک Dizan نسبت به سایر خاک‌های موردبررسی با افزایش معنی-داری همراه شد. میزان فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی بیش از 7/2 برابر فسفاتاز اسیدی در خاک Dizanبود. میزان تأثیر کمپوست زباله شهری بر فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز اسیدی نسبت به گوسفندی و سوپرفسفات‌تریپل به ترتیب 3/82 و 1/62 و بر فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی به ترتیب 6/52 و 6/87 میکروگرم پارانیتروفنل بر گرم خاک خشک بر ساعت بیشتر بود. در برهم‌کنش خاک و کود، بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز اسیدی از خاک Dizan در تیمار با کمپوست زباله شهری و سوپرفسفات تریپل به ‌دست آمد. در خاک Dizan با کاربرد سوپرفسفات‌ تریپل، غلظت جذب فسفر توسط گیاه نسبت به کود گوسفندی، 3/34 درصد، کود کمپوست زباله شهری، 9/20 درصد و نسبت به شاهد، 7/65 درصد افزایش داشت. در این خاک میزان فسفر باقی‌مانده خاک پس از برداشت گیاه در تیمار با کود سوپرفسفات تریپل نسبت به تیمار با کود گوسفندی، 3/33 درصد، کود کمپوست زباله شهری، 7/61 درصد و شاهد 4/ 72 درصد افزایش نشان داد. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق در خاک‌های آهکی با کاربرد کمپوست زباله شهری حداکثر فعالیت آنزیمی فسفاتاز حاصل می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on the uptake of phosphorus by wheat and activity of acidic and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • jafar shahabifar 1
  • Ebrahim Panahpour 2
  • Farhad Moshiri 3
  • Ali Gholami 2
  • Mehrzad Mostashari 4
1 PhD student of Soil Science, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran
2 Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of Soil and Water Research Section, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, (AREEO), Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Phosphorus deficiency is one of the most important problems in calcareous agricultural soils of arid and semi-arid regions. This study was conducted to investigate the phosphorus uptake and activity of acidic and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in three types of soils with different levels of available phosphorus (Qazvin1, Qazvin2 and Dizan) treated with 50 mg/kg phosphorus by using sheep manure, municipal solid waste compost and triple superphosphate under greenhouse conditions in 2015 as a completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that the acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity in Dizan were significantly higher than other studied soils. The alkaline phosphatase activity was more 2.7 times than acidic phosphatase in the soil. The influence of municipal solid waste compost on acidic and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activity were 82.3 and 62.1 p- Nitro phenol (µg/g-1dwt h-1) and 52.6 and 87.6 p- Nitro phenol (µg/g-1dwt h-1) higher than sheep manure and triple superphosphate treatments respectively. The results of soil and fertilizers interaction showed that, acidic phosphatase enzyme activity in municipal solid waste compost and triple superphosphate were more than sheep manure in Dizan soil sample. The phosphorus uptake by plant was 34.3, 20.9 and 65.7 % in Dizan treated soil sample with sheep manure, municipal solid waste and control respectively. In Dizan soil residual phosphorus after harvest of wheat in triple superphosphate treatment was 33.3, 61.7 and 72.4 % compared to sheep manure, municipal solid waste compost and control, respectively. According to the results the maximum phosphatase enzyme activity was obtained in treated calcareous soil with municipal waste compost.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Compost
  • sheep manure
  • triple super phosphate
  • Wheat
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