اثرات سنگریزه و کود مرغی بر برخی شاخص های رشد خیار و ویژگی های خاک در شمال غرب دریاچه ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

استفاده از سنگریزه برای کنترل تبخیر در خاک‌های مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک رایج است. هدف از این پژوهش مزرعه‌ای بررسی اثرات متقابل مقادیر مختلف سنگریزه و کود مرغی بر برخی ویژگی‌های خیار و خاک بود. آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در منطقه شبستر اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول سنگریزه در مقادیر صفر، 15، 30، 45 و kg m-260 و فاکتور دوم کود مرغی در مقادیر صفر، 250، 500، 750 و g m-21000 بود. سنگریزه به‌صورت مالچ سطحی و کود به صورت اختلاط با خاک در عمق cm 20 استفاده شد. برخی شاخص‌های رشد خیار در طول فصل رشد و نیز برخی ویژگی‌های گیاه و خاک در پایان فصل رشد تعیین گردید. کاربرد سنگریزه در بالاترین سطح موجب افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد (%9/16) و کارآیی مصرف آب خیار (%17)، پایداری خاکدانه (%5/46) و رطوبت خاک مزرعه (%9/42) و کاهش معنی‌دار آهک (%1/15) و مقاومت فروروی خاک (%3/59) در مقایسه با شاهد گردید. استفاده از کود مرغی در بالاترین مقدار مصرفی باعث افزایش معنی‌دار شاخص کلروفیل (%3/50)، عملکرد (%9/96) و وزن خشک میوه (%3/60)، کارآیی مصرف آب (%98)، کربن آلی (%4/64)، پایداری خاکدانه (%150)، هدایت الکتریکی خاک (%5/287) و کاهش معنی‌دار آهک (%8/27) و اسیدیته خاک (%8/12) نسبت به شاهدگردید. کاربرد توأم سنگریزه و کود مرغی در بالاترین سطح مصرفی موجب افزایش معنی‌دار محتوای نسبی آب برگ به میزان 8/14 تا 4/24 درصد نسبت به سایر تیمارها گردید. نتایج نشان داد مالچ سنگریزه از طریق افزایش نگهداری آب در خاک باعث بهبود عملکرد خیار و کیفیت فیزیکی خاک می‌گردد. همچنین کود مرغی در مقادیر کم تا زیاد از طریق افزایش ماده آلی و کاهش اسیدیته و آهک می‌تواند باعث ارتقای کیفیت فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در منطقه نیمه‌خشک شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of gravel and poultry manure on some growth indices of cucumber and soil properties in the north west of Urmia Lake

چکیده [English]

Application of gravel for controlling evaporation is prevalent in soils of arid and semiarid regions. The objective of this field study was to investigate the interactional effects of gravel and poultry manure (PM) at different application rates on selected properties of cucumber and soil. A factorial experiment was carried out in Shabestar region based on completely randomized design with three replicates. The first factor was gravel at the rates of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg m-2 and the second was PM at the rates of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 g m-2. Gravel was applied as surface mulch while PM was mixed into the top 20 cm of soil depth. Some growth indices of cucumber and soil properties were determined during and at the end of growth season. The highest rate of gravel significantly increased the yield (16.9%) and water use efficiency (WUE) (17%) of cucumber, aggregate stability (46.5%) and field water content (42.8%) of soil and significantly decreased CaCO3 (15.1%) and soil penetration resistance (59.3%) compared to the control. The highest rate of PM significantly increased the chlorophyll index (50.3%), yield (96.9%), fruit dry matter (60.3%), WUE (98%), organic carbon (64.4%), aggregate stability (150%), electrical conductivity (EC) (287.5%) and significantly decreased CaCO3 (27.8%) and soil pH (12.8%) relative to the control. Simultaneously, application of gravel and PM at the highest rate significantly increased the relative water content of leaf (14.8 to 24.4%) relative to the other treatments. Results showed that gravel mulch improves cucumber yield and soil physical quality by increasing water holding capacity of the soil. Also, PM at low and high rates can improve soil physical and chemical quality in the semiarid region by increasing the organic carbon and decreasing pH and CaCO3.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mulching
  • Relative water content of leaf
  • Soil physicochemical properties
  • Water use efficiency
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