اثر کمبود روی قابل جذب بر برخی خصوصیّات فیزیولوژیکی و مورفولوژیکی گندم نان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی, دانشکده کشاورزی, دانشگاه ارومیه

2 گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی, دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشیار گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

عنصر روی (Zn) یکی از حیاتی­ترین عناصر غذایی محدود کننده رشد گیاهان می­باشد. به­منظور بررسی اثر کمبود روی بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و مورفولوژیک گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.)، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه اجرا شد. ارقام روی-کارا (بیات و نیک­نژاد) و روی-ناکارا (هیرمند و کرج­1) در دو شرایط روی کافی (پنج میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم خاک) و کمبود روی (صفر میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم خاک) کشت و صفات وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در سنبله، میزان کلروفیل، غلظت روی دانه، ریشه و برگ و برخی صفات مورفولوژیک اندازه­گیری شدند. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس، اثرات اصلی سطح روی و ارقام بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه معنی­دار (P≤0.01) بود، درحالیکه اثر متقابل سطح روی در ارقام فقط برای صفات غلظت روی ریشه، روی شاخساره و روی دانه، معنی­دار (P≤0.01) بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین تیمارها نشان داد که در شرایط کمبود روی، غلظت روی در ریشه ارقام روی-کارا (نیک­نژاد و بیات به­ترتیب 59 و 75/44 میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم) به­طور معنی­داری (P≤0.01) بیشتر از ارقام روی-ناکارا (هیرمند و کرج1 به­ترتیب 58/30 و 98/32 میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم) بود. همچنین غلظت روی دانه در رقم روی-­کارای بیات (82/28 میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم) به­طور معنی­داری (P≤0.01) از ارقام روی-­ناکارا (هیرمند و کرج1 به­ترتیب 95/24 و 85/22 میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم) بیشتر بود. محاسبه درصد کاهش صفات در شرایط کمبود روی نشان داد که میزان کاهش در عملکرد ماده خشک شاخساره، غلظت روی ریشه، غلظت روی دانه و میزان کلروفیل برگ در در ارقام روی-ناکارا بیشتر از ارقام روی-کارا بود. بطورکلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که ارقام روی-کارا نسبت به ارقام روی-ناکارا در شرایط کمبود روی خاک، از توانایی بیشتری در رشد و تولید ماده خشک برخوردار بوده و قادرند میزان روی بیشتری در دانه ذخیره نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Absorbable Zinc Deficiency on some Physiological and Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Mohsen Niazkhani 1
  • Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani 2
  • Morad Jafari 3
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 4
1 Ph.D student of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
2 Associate professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
3 Associate professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
4 Dept of Soil Sci. Urmia Uni
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Zinc is one of the most critical nutrient elements limiting the plant growth. To investigate the effects of soil Zn deficiency on some physiological and morphological traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in greenhouse. Zn-efficient (Bayat and Nik-nejhad) and inefficient (Hirmand and Karaj-1) cultivars were grown in Zn-deficit (0 mg kg-1 soil) and -adequate (5 mg kg-1 soil) soils. The studied traits were 1000 grain weight, number of grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain, root and leaf Zn concentrations and some morphological traits. The results of variance analysis showed that all traits are significantly (P≤0.01) affected by Zn levels and cultivars, while the interaction effects of Zn level × cultivars were only significant (P≤0.01) for root, shoot and grain Zn concentrations. Mean comparisons of the interaction effects revealed that under soil Zn deficiency, the concentration of root Zn in Zn-efficient cultivars (Nik-nejhad: 59 mg kg-1, Bayat: 44.75 mg kg-1) is significantly (P≤0.01) more than those of Zn-inefficient cultivars (Hirmand: 30.58 mg kg-1, Karaj-1: 32.98 mg kg-1). The grain Zn concentration of Bayat (28.82 mg kg-1) cultivar was also significantly (P≤0.01) more than those of Zn-inefficient cultivars (Hirmand: 24.95 mg kg-1 and karaj-1: 22.85 mg kg-1). The estimation of trait decline percentage under soil Zn deficiency revealed more decrease for shoot dry weight, root and grain Zn concentrations and chlorophyll content in Zn-inefficient cultivars, compared to Zn-efficient ones. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that Zn-efficient bread wheat cultivars are able to produce more dry matter and accumulate more Zn in grains under soil Zn deficiency conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bread Wheat
  • Number of seeds/spike
  • 1000 seed weight
  • Seed Zn concentration
  • Zinc uptake efficiency
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