اثر بیوچار تهیه شده از بقایای کشاورزی در دماهای متفاوت بر برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی یک خاک آهکی و غلظت سدیم و پتاسیم در گیاه ذرت (Zea mays)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 حاصلخیزی و تغذیه

3 شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک

4 استاد علوم خاک گرگان

چکیده

بیوچار یک ماده جامد غنی از کربن است که حاصل حرارت دهی زیست توده‌های گیاهی و بقایای کشاورزی در شرایط اکسیژن محدود می‌باشد. اثرات بیوچار در خاک بستگی به دمای گرماکافت و نوع ماده اولیه مورد استفاده در تولید بیوچار دارد. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر بیوچار حاصل از بقایای کشاورزی در دماهای متفاوت گرماکافت بر ویژگی‌های خاک، وضعیت کاتیون‌ها و آنیون‌های خاک و غلظت سدیم و پتاسیم در گیاه ذرت، آزمایشی گلخانه‌ای به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 4 تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارها شامل نوع بیوچار (بیوچارهای بقایای برنج، بقایای پنبه و بقایای کلزا)، دمای گرماکافت (350 و 700 درجه سلسیوس) و مقدار بیوچار (0، 2 و 5 درصد وزنی/وزنی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که همه بیوچارها سبب افزایش قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی خاک شدند. حداقل مقدار pH در خاک در تیمار بیوچار تهیه شده از بقایای برنج و بیشترین pH در خاک در تیمار بیوچار تولید شده از پنبه به‌دست آمد. افزایش دمای گرماکافت از 350 به 700 درجه سلسیوس سبب افزایش معنی‌دار pH در خاک شد. بیشترین مقادیر سدیم، کلسیم، منیزیم، کلر و بی‌کربنات در خاک در دمای 350 درجه سلسیوس به‌دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار سدیم در برگ و ساقه ذرت در تیمار بیوچار حاصل از بقایای برنج به‌دست آمد درحالی‌که در مورد پتاسیم برگ و ساقه، بیوچار تهیه شده از بقایای کلزا بیشترین افزایش را داشت. دمای تولید بیوچار تنها بر مقدار سدیم برگ اثر معنی‌داری در سطح 5% داشت. دمای گرماگافت و نوع ماده خام اولیه فاکتورهای مهمی هستند که ویژگی‌های شیمیایی بیوچار و متعاقب آن ویژگی‌های خاک را متأثر می‌سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biochars Prepared from Agricultural Residues at Different Temperatures on Some Chemical Properties of a Calcareous Soil and Na and K Concentration of Corn (Zea mays)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges sousaraee 1
  • Esmaeil Dordipour 3
  • Farhad Khormali 4
1 Dept. of Soil Science ,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
3 Dept. of Soil Science ,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
4 Dept. of Soil Science ,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material produced by heating biomass and agricultural residues in an oxygen-limited environment. However, effects of biochar in soil depend on pyrolysis temperature and type of the raw material used in its production. In order to determine the effect of biochars prepared from agricultural residues at different temperatures on soil characteristics, soil cations and anions and Na and K concentrations of corn, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in four replications under greenhouse condition. Treatments included biochar type (rice, cotton and canola), pyrolysis temperatures (350 and 700 °C) and two application rates (0, 2 and 5 w/w). The results showed that all types of biochar increased soil EC values. The lowest and highest values of soil pH were observed at biochar prepared from rice and cotton residues, respectively. The soil pH was significantly increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature from 350 to 700 °C. The highest values of soil Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl- and HCO3- was observed at 350 °C. The results showed that between each three biochars type produced from crop residues (rice, cotton and canola), the highest Na concentrations of leaf and stem were recorded with addition of biochar prepared from rice residues, however, the biochar prepared from canola residues lead to the highest amount on K concentrations of leaf and stem. The pyrolysis temperature only affected the Na concentration of leaf at 5% probability level. The results showed that pyrolysis temperature and the type of feedstock material are important factors that influence the chemical properties of biochars and subsequently the soil characteristics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural residues
  • Soil cations
  • Soil anions
  • Biochar
  • Pyrolysis
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