پهنه‌بندی و تحلیل مکانی برخی خصوصیات خاک در اراضی دانشگاه زنجان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه زنجان

3 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود، ایران

4 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان ، ایران

چکیده

تخمین روند تغییرپذیری مکانی ویژگی‌های مختلف خاک، راهکاری سودمند برای دست‌یابی به مدیریت خاص مکانی کارا و هدفمند این جزء حیاتی اکوسیستم است. در این پژوهش، به‌منظور بررسی تغییرات مکانی ویژگی‌های خاک، 48 نمونه خاک از عمق صفر تا 25 سانتی‌متری به روش شبکه‌بندی منظم با فواصل 250 متری در اراضی دانشگاه زنجان جمع‌آوری شد. ویژگی‌های مختلف خاک نظیر وزن مخصوص ظاهری، مقدار آب قابل‌دسترسقابل‌دسترس، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع، میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه­ها، درصد رس، درصد شن، کربن آلی و کربنات کلسیم معادل اندازه‌گیری شد. پس از تشریح ساختار مکانی متغیرهای مختلف، مقادیر آن­ها با استفاده از تخمین‌گر کریجینگ معمولی برآورد شد و نقشه‌های پیوسته مکانی فراهم گردید. نتایج پژوهش گویای آن بود که بیش‌ترین ضریب تغییرات به ویژگی هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع (28/43 درصد) و کم‌ترین آن به جرم مخصوص ظاهری (53/5 درصد) تعلق داشت. برای متغیرهای درصد کربن آلی و کربنات کلسیم معادل، مدل کروی و برای سایر متغیرها، مدل نمایی مناسب‌ترین برازش را بر الگوی تغییرات مکانی داشتند. کلاس هم‌بستگی مکانی برای ویژگی هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک، متوسط و برای سایر ویژگی‌های مورد مطالعه، قوی بود. بررسی نقشه‎های پهنه‌بندی حاکی از آن بود که با افزایش درصد رس از جنوب به شمال منطقه، مقادیر هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک کاهش و مقادیر آب قابل‌دسترس در خاک افزایش می‌یابند. این نتیجه گویای آن است که با توجه به جوان بودن خاک‌ها و عدم تکامل ساختمان در آن­ها، اغلب ویژگی‌های فیزیکی خاک تحت تأثیر بافت خاک هستند. هم‌چنین مشاهده شد که اختصاص یافتن اراضی واقع در بخش‌های جنوبی منطقه به کشت گیاهان زراعی و بخش‌های شمالی به باغ سیب، موجب افزایش درصد کربن آلی به بیش‌تر از یک درصد شده است که به‌نوبه خود، باعث افزایش قابل‌ملاحظه میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه‌ها در این مناطق شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Variability of Some Soil Characteristics in Lands of Zanjan University

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadiseh Shabani 1
  • Mohammad Amir Delavar 2
  • Yaser Safari 3
  • Parisa Alamdari 4
1 Soil Science, Agriculture Faculty, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor
3 Depth. Soil science, Agriculture faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
4 Depth. of Soil science, Agriculture faculty, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Assessing the spatial variability trend of various soil properties is a helpful procedure to access to the efficient site-specific management of this ecosystem vital component. Aimed to investigate the spatial soil variability in lands of Zanjan University, 48 topsoil (0-25) samples were collected based on a regular grid of 250 meter. Soil samples were analyzed for some physical properties, including bulk density, available water capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, mean weight diameter and clay, sand, organic carbon and equivalent calcium carbonate percentage. Identifying the spatial structure of selected properties, ordinary kriging was used to estimate the values of soil properties in un-sampled locations and continuous maps were prepared. The results showed that saturated hydraulic conductivity (43.28%) and bulk density (5.53%) had the maximum and minimum coefficients of variations, respectively. The spherical model was performed well to describe the spatial structure of organic carbon and carbonate calcium equivalent; whereas exponential model showed the best fit to the remained soil properties. Saturated hydraulic conductivity showed a strong correlation class; whereas spatial structure of other studied properties was moderately correlated. Interpolated maps revealed that increasing clay percentage from the south to the north of study area led to the decreased contents of saturated hydraulic conductivity and increased values of available water capacity. This observation indicated that considering soil youthfulness and less-developed soil structure, most of the soil physical properties are mainly influenced by soil texture. It is also observed that cultivated crops in the south of studied area and apple trees in the north, resulted in the soil organic carbon to be increased to more than 1%, in turn, led to the significant increase in mean weight diameter of soil aggregates in these areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial variability
  • Kriging
  • Geostatistics
  • Variogram
References

Amirinejad A.A., Kamble K., Aggarwal P., Chakraborty D., Pradhan S., and Mittal R.B. 2010. Assessment and mapping of spatial variation of soil physical health in a farm. Geoderma, 160: 292- 303.

Askin T., and Özdemir N. 2003. Soil Bulk density as related to soil particle size distribution and organic matter content. Agriculture, 9: 52-56.

Baibourdi M. 2000. Soil and Water relations. Tehran University Press, 710p. (In Persian).

Bhatti A. 2002. Geostatistical Techniques and applications for managing degraded soil for sustainable production. Science Vision, 8: 27-35.

Black A.L. 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A. (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Method. American Society of Agronomy, Agronomy Monograph 9, pp. 374- 380.

Bocchi A., Castrignano B.F., Fornarob A., and Maggiore T. 2000. Application of factorial kriging for mapping soil variation at field scale. European Journal of Agronomy,13: 295–308.

Cambardella C.A., Moorman T.B., Parkin T.B., Karlen D.L., Novak J.M., Turco R.F. and Konopka A.E. 1994. Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society. America Journal, 58: 1501-1511.

Cetin M., and Kirda C. 2003. Spatial and temporal changes of soil salinity in cotton field irrigated with low quality water. Journal of Hydrology, 272: 238-249.

Chaudhari P.R., Ahire D.V., Ahire V.D., Chkravarty M., and Maity S. 2013. Soil Bulk density related to soil Texture, Organic Matter Content and available total Nutrients of Coimbatore Soil. International Journal Scientific and Research publications, 3: 1-8.

Foroughifar H., Jafarzadeh A.A., TorabiGelsefidi H., Aliasgharzade N., Toomanian N., and Davatgar N. 2010. Spatial variations of surface physical and chemical properties on different landforms of Tabriz Plain. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 21: 6-21. (In Persian)

Gee G.W., and Bauder J.W. 1986. Particle size analysis. In: Klute A. (Ed), Methods of soil analysis, Part 1, Physical and mineralogical methods, Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, WI, pp. 383-411.

Geeves G.W., Craze B., and Hamilton G.J. 2007a. Soil physical properties. In: Charman P.E.V and Murphy B.W. (Ed), Soils their properties and management. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp. 168–191.

Hillel D. 1998. Environmental soil physics. Fundamentals, applications, and environmental considerations. Academic press .775p.

Iqbal J., Thomasson J.A., Jenkins J.N., Owens Ph. R., and Whisler F.D. 2005. Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Physical Properties of Alluvial Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69: 1-14.

Kavianpoor H., EsmaliOuri A., JafarianJeloudar Z., and Kavian A. 2012. Spatial variability of some soil chemical and physical soil properties in Nesho mountainous rangelands. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2: 34-44.

Kemper W. D., and Rosenau R. C. 1986. Aggregate stability and aggregate size distribution. In: Klute A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part.1, Physical and mineralogical methods, Agronom, Monograph 9, Madison, WI, pp. 377-381.

Kirkham M.B. 2005. Principles of soil and plant water relations. Academic Press, 500p.

Klute A. and Dirksen C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity. In: Klute A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and mineralogical methods, (2nd Ed). Agronomy Monograph.9, Madison, WI, pp. 687-734

Mohammad Zamani S., Ayoubi Sh., and Khormali F. 2007. Spatial Variability of wheat yield and soil properties in a selected agriculture land of Sorkhankalateh. Journal of Science Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Water and Soil Science, 11: 79-92. (In Persian)

Mohammadi J. 2006. Pedometrics (Spatial statistical), Vol. 2. Pelk press, 453p. (In Persian)

Motaghian H.R., Karimi A., and Mohammadi J. 2008. Analysis of spatial variability specific physical and hydraulic properties of soil on a catchment scale. Journal of Water and Soil, Ferdousi University, 22: 432-446. (In Persian)

Nelson R.E. 1982. Carbonate and Gypsum. In: Page A.L (Ed), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, (2nd Ed). Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, WI, pp. 181-196.

Newhall F., and Berdanier C.R., 1996. Calculation of Soil Moisture Regimes from the Climatic Record, Soil Survey Investigations Report, vol. 46, National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Lincoln, NE.

Nikpur M., Mahboubi A.A., Mosaddeghi M.R., Safadoust A. 2012. Assessment of soil intrinsic properties effects on structural stability of some soils in Hamadan province. Journal of Science Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Water and Soil Science, 15: 85-96. (In Persian)

Oliver M.A., and Webster R. 2014. A tutorial guide to geostatistics: Computing and modelling variograms and kriging. Catena, 113: 56- 96.

Peukert S., Bol R., Roberts W., Macleod C.J.A., Murray P.J., Dixon E.R. and Brazier R.E. 2012. Understanding spatial variability of soil properties, a key step in establishing field to farm scale agro ecosystem experiments. Rapid Communications Mass Spectrometry.26: 2413-2421.

Qiu W., Curtin D., and Beare M. 2011.Spatial variability of available nutrients and soil carbon under arable cropping in Canterbury. The New Zealand Institute for plant and food research limited. 1-7.

Safari Y., Esfandiarpour Boroujeni I., Kamali A., Salehi M.H., and Bagheri Bodaghabadi M. 2013. Mapping of the soil texture using geostatistical method (a case study of the Shahrekord plain, central Iran). Arab Journal of Geosciences, 6: 3331-3339.

Saglam M., Öztürk H.S., Ersahin S., and ˙Iözkan A. 2011. Spatial variation of soil physical properties in adjacent alluvial and colluvial soils under Ustic moisture regime. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 8: 4261-4280.

Santra P., Chopra U. K., and Chakraborty D. 2008. Spatial variability of soil properties and its application in predicting surface map of hydraulic parameters in an agricultural farm. Current Science, 95: 937-945.

Sarmadian F., Keshavarzi A., and Malekian A. 2010. Continuous mapping of topsoil calcium carbonate using geostatistical techniques in a semi-arid region. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4: 603-608.

Sharma P., Shukla K.M., and Mexal G.J. 2011. Spatial variability of soil properties in agricultural fields of southern New Mexico. Journal of soil science, 176: 288-302.

Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC.

Walkly A., and Black I.A. 1934. An examination of digestion methods for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic and titration. Soil Science, 37: 29-38.

Wang Y., Zhang X., Huang C., 2009. Spatial variability of soil total nitrogen and soil total phosphorus under different land uses in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. Geoderma, 150: 141-149.

Webster R., and Oliver M.A. 2007. Geostatistics for environmental scientist, west Sussex, 315p.

Wei J.B., Xiao D.N., Zeng H., and Fu Y.K. 2008. Spatial variability of soil properties in relation to land use and topography in a typical small watershed of the black soil region, northeastern China. Environmental Geology, 53: 1663-1672.

Wilding L.P. 1985. Spatial variability. Its documentation, accommodation, and implication to soil surveys In: Nielson D.R and Bouma J. (Ed.), Soil Spatial Variability, Pudoc, Wagenigen, The Netherlands, pp. 166-194

Yan X., and Cai Z. 2008. Number of soil profiles needed to give a reliable overall estimate of soil organic carbon storage using profile carbon density data. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 54: 819-825.

Yemefack M., Rossiter D.G., and Njomgang R. 2005. Multi-scale characterization of soil variability within an agricultural landscape mosaic system in southern Cameroon. Geoderma, 125: 117-143.