تعیین فرسایش‌پذیری بادی در بخشی از اراضی شرق دریاچه ارومیه و بررسی ارتباط آن با ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی مقطع دکترا، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

3 علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

4 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

5 عضو هیات علمی گروه مهندسی علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

چکیده
درسال­های اخیر، بخش زیادی از عرصه آبی دریاچه ارومیه خشک و بستری از رسوبات ریزدانه شور در سطح زمین به وجود آمده که بسیار مستعد فرسایش بادی می­باشند. این پژوهش به­منظور بررسی فرسایش­پذیری بادی و رابطه آن با ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در بخشی از اراضی شرق دریاچه ارومیه انجام شد. در مجموع 96 نمونه خاک از منطقه‌ای با مساحت 414000 هکتار از عمق 5 سانتی‌متری خاک با استفاده از روش تصادفی نظارت شده جمع‌آوری گردید. فرسایش­پذیری بادی نمونه­ها با استفاده از تونل بادی تحت پنج سرعت باد مختلف (5/9، 11، 5/12، 1/14 و 15 متر برثانیه) تعیین و در نهایت رابطه آن با ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که فرسایش­پذیری بادی در خاک­های منطقه در محدوده­ 98/49-76/0 ((gr m-2 min-1)/(m s-1)) متغیر بوده و با میانگین 21/10 و ضریب تغییرات 5/94 درصد از دامنه­ی تغییرات نسبتاً بالایی در منطقه برخوردار است. فرسایش­پذیری بادی با ویژگی­های فیزیکی خاک­ها از جمله میانگین اندازه قطر خاکدانه­ها، فراوانی ذرات ثانویه 75/4-2، 2-7/1 و 25/0-1/0 میلی­متر ارتباط معنی­دار دارد (001/0>p). نتایج نشان داد که در مقایسه با تمامی ویژگی­های خاک­ها، فراوانی جزء فرسایش­پذیر (خاکدانه­های کوچکتر از 85/0 میلی­متر) دارای مناسب­ترین ارتباط با  (755/0 = R2، 001/0>p) با فرسایش­پذیری خاک­ها بوده و با افزایش این جزء، مقدار فرسایش­پذیری به شکل نمایی افزایش می‌یابد. این شاخص با توجه به سادگی و سهولت تعیین آن، می­تواند به­عنوان بخشی از عامل خاک در مدل­های رایج پیش­بینی فرسایش بادی از قبیل WEQ و RWEQ در منطقه مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و باعث صرفه­جویی در هزینه و زمان برای تخمین فرسایش­پذیری خاک­ها گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Soil Wind Erodibility in Eastern Urmia Lake and its Relationship with Soil Physicochemical Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • bijan raei 1
  • Abbas Ahmadi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Neyshabouri 3
  • Mohammad Ali Ghorbani 4
  • Farrokh Asadzadeh 5
1 PhD student, Department of Soil Science, faculty of agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, faculty of agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Soil science department, faculty of agriculture, university of Tabriz
4 Department of Water Engineering, faculty of agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
5 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, faculty of agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia
چکیده [English]

In recent years, vast areas of Urmia Lake have dried up and that's why, saline sediments appeared on the surface of the earth, which are very susceptible to erosion. This study was conducted to investigation of wind erosion and its relationship with soil physicochemical properties in eastern land of Urmia Lake. In this research, 96 soil samples were collected from an area of 414000 hectares at a depth of 5 cm based on stratified random sampling method. To measure the wind erodibility, the samples were exposed to 5 different wind velocities (9.5, 11, 12.5, 14.1 and 15 m s-1 at the height of 20 cm) in wind tunnel and finally, its relationship with soil physicochemical properties was investigated. Based on results, soil wind erodibility varied within the range of 76.69-9.98, and with a mean of 10.21 and a coefficient of variation of 94.5% have a relatively high variation in studied area. Wind erosion is significantly affected by soil physical properties, including mean weight diameter, the percent of the size classes 2-4.75, 1.7-2 and 0.1-0.25 mm of soil secondary particles (P<0.001). Based on the results, the erodible fraction (secondary particles smaller than 0.85 mm) had the most appropriate relationship with soil wind erodibility (R2= 0.75, P<0.001) and by increasing it, the soil wind erodibility increased exponentially. Considering the less costly and time-consuming in measuring erodible fraction and also less costly and time-consuming compared with measurement of soil wind erodibility in the field and wind tunnel, this index can be used as a part of soil factor in wind erosion prediction models such as WEQ and RWEQ in the studied area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Erodible Fraction
  • Stratified random sampling method
  • Wind erosion
  • Wind tunnel
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