تعیین میزان اثر‌گذاری ویژگی‌های خاک بر رواناب و رسوب در سطح زیررده با استفاده از تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی (مطالعه موردی: دشت اردبیل)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 انشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 3- دانشیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی- اردبیل- ایران

چکیده

شناخت عوامل و فرآیندهای مؤثر بر فرسایش و رسوب خاک در یک منطقه، در ارائه راهکارهای مناسب برای حفاظت خاک ضروری می‌باشد. در این پژوهش، تأثیر ویژگی‌های خاک بر میزان رواناب و رسوب با استفاده از دستگاه شبیه‌ساز باران در سطح زیر‌رده، در دشت اردبیل بررسی گردید و برای بیان تأثیر ویژگی‌های خاک، از تجزیه و تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی (PCA) استفاده شد. 77 نمونه خاک سطحی با روش شبکه‌های منظم (3500×3500 متر) تهیه گردید و برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک (بافت، رطوبت اشباع، کربن آلی، هدایت الکتریکی، اسیدیته، نیتروژن کل و پتاسیم) در آزمایشگاه اندازه‌گیری شد. علاوه بر آن، درصد پوشش گیاهی در نقاط نمونه برداری نیز از طریق پلات اندازه‌گیری شد. نمونه‌برداری رواناب و رسوب با استفاده از دستگاه شبیه‌ساز باران (با شدت 9/23 میلی‌متر بر ساعت و مدت 10 دقیقه) در 40 نقطه اجرا و نمونه‌های رواناب و رسوب برداشت و به آزمایشگاه منتقل شد. نیم‌رخ‌‌های شاهد خاک تا سطح زیر‌رده با استفاده از سیستم جامع آمریکایی تشریح شدند. نتایج تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی (PCA) نشان داد نه عامل از 13 عامل بررسی شده در سه مؤلفه اصلی قرار گرفته که در مجموع 01/57 درصد از تغییرات میزان رسوب را توجیه می‌کنند. بر طبق نتایج، بیش‌ترین میزان رواناب (8/4 لیتر بر متر مربع) و رسوب (58 گرم بر متر مربع) در ‌زیررده Psamments اندازه‌گیری شد. میزان کم کربن آلی در این زیر‌رده (78/0 درصد)، موجب کاهش نفوذ‌پذیری خاک و افزایش حجم رواناب تولیدی می‌گردد. همچنین کم‌ترین میزان رواناب (4/2 لیتر بر متر مربع) و رسوب (84/21 گرم بر متر مربع) در زیر‌رده Xeralfs مشاهده شد که در آن میزان کربن آلی (21/3 درصد) و پایداری خاکدانه‌ها (59/6 درصد) زیاد بوده و به بتع آن، نفوذ‌پذیری خاک افزایش و تلفات خاک کاهش پیدا می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Effect of Soil Properties on Runoff and Sediment at Suborder Level Using Principal Components Analysis (Case Study: Ardabil Plain)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Agha-Alizadeh 1
  • Ayda Abbasi-Kalo 2
  • Abazar Esmali- ouri 3
1 1. Graduated Ms.C Student, of Soil Sciences and Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Soil Science and Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
3 Associate Prof. of Range and Watershed Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Understanding the factors and processes affecting soil erosion and sedimentation in an area is an essential for providing a suitable strategy for soil conservation. In this research, the effect of soil characteristics on runoff and sediment yield was reviewed using a rain simulator in Ardabil plain. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to show the effect of soil properties. Surface soil sampling was carried out at 77 points in the form of 3500 × 3500 m regular grids and runoff and sediment sampling using 40-point rain simulator. Some physical and chemical properties of soils (texture, saturation moisture, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, acidity, total nitrogen and potassium) were measured in the laboratory. In addition, the vegetation cover percentage was measured by plot at sampling points. Simulation of rain (intensity of 23.9 mm h-1 in 10 minutes) was carried out at 40 sampling points and runoff and sediment samples were taken and transferred to the laboratory. The representative soil profiles descriped to suborder level using Soil Taxonomy. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that nine factors of 13 investigated factors were located in first three principle component that contribute of 57.1% of total variation in erosion changes. According to the results, the highest amount of runoff (4.8 l m-2) and sediment (58 g m-2) was measured in Psamments because of low organic carbon content (0.78%) in this suborder which reduced soil permeability and amount of generated runoff increases. The lowest amount of runoff (2.4 l m-2) and sediment (21.84 g m-2) were observed at Xeralfs, where the amount of organic carbon (3.21%) and aggregate stability (6.59%) are high that increases permeability and reduces soil losses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Erosion
  • Rainfall simulator
  • Soil orders
  • Soil texture
References

Ahmadi H. 2000. Applied Geomorphology: Water Erosion. Tehran university Press, Tehran, 688p. (In persian)

Soil Survey Staff . 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th Ed. US Department Of Agriculture, 360pp.

Azmoodeh A., Kavian A., Soleimani K., and Vahabzadeh G.H. 2010. Comparing Runoff and Soil Erosion in Forest, Dry Farming and Garden Land Uses Soils Using Rainfall Simulator. Journal of Water and Soil, 24(3): 490-500. (In Persian)

Bissonnais Y.L., Cerdan O., Lecomte V., Benkhadra H., Souchere V., and Martin P. 2005. Variability of soil surface characteristics influencing runoff and interrill erosion. Catena, 62: 111-124.

Bremner J.M., and Mulvaney C.S. 1982. Nitrogen total. 595-624. In A.L. Page (Ed), Methods of soil analysis. Agron. No. 9, Part 2: Chemical and microbiological prpperties, 2nd Ed., Am. Soc. Argon., Madison, WI, USA.

Brunner A.C., Park SJ., Ruecker GR., Dikau R., and Vlek P.L.G. 2004. Catenary soil development influencing erosion susceptibility along a hillslope in Uganda. Catena, 58: 1- 22.

Casermeiro M.A., Molina J.A., Dela Cruz Caravaca M.T., Hernando Costa J., Hernando Massanet M.I., and Moreno PS. 2004. Influence of scrubs on runoff and sediment loss in soils of Mediterranean climate. Catena, 54: 91-107.

Chen Z.W., Liu X.N., Zhu B. 2016. Runoff estimation in hillslope cropland of purple soil based on SCS-CN model. Trancs Chinese Society Agriculture Engineering, 31(1): 29-33.

Du J., Shi C.H.X., and Zhang C.H.D. 2013. Modeling and analysis of effects of precipitation and vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield in Jinsha River Basin. Water Science and Engineeering, 6: 44-58.

Duiker S.W., Flanagan D.C., and Lal R. 2001. Erodibility and infiltration characteristics of five major soils of southwest Spain. Catena, 34: 103-121.

Ekwue E.I., and Harrilal A. 2010. Effect of soil type, peat, slope, compaction effort and their interactions on infiltration, runoff and raindrop erosion of some Trinidadian soils. Biosystems Engineering, 105: 112-118.

Feiznia S., Ghauomian J., and Khadjeh M. 2005. The study of the effect of physical, chemical and climate factors on surface erosion sediment yield of loess soils (Case study in Golestan province). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 66: 14-24. (In Persian)

Fernandez C., and Aovga V. 2006. Runoff and soil erosion after rainfall simulation in burned soil. Forest Ecology and Management, 375-377.

Gee G.W., and Bauder J.W. 1980. Particle-size analysis. In: Klutem A. (Ed), Methods of soil analysis, part 1, physical and mineralogical methods, Second edition, Agronomy, Soil Scienety of America,Madison, Wisconisin, USA.

Ghahraman B., and Sepasskhah A.R. 1991. Estimation of the relationship between intensity and frequency of rainfall in Iran using one hour of 10 years rain. Third International Congress on Road and Building Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shiraz university, pp 35-54. (In Persian)

Girmay G., Sing B.R., Nyssen J., and Borroosen T. 2009. Runoff and sediment associated nutrient losses under different land uses in Tigray. Journal of Hydrology, 376: 70-80.

Habibzadeh A., Nikjoo M., and Peyrovan H. 2013. Evalution of runoff and sediment in the marl outcropping in East Azerbaijan. Journal of Geography and Planning, 43: 71-91.

Jordan A., Martinez-Zavala L., and Bellinfante N. 2008. Heterogeneity in soil hydrological response from different land cover types in southern Spain. Catena, 74: 137-143.

Johnson R.A., and  Wichern D.W. 1982. Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Prentice-hall inc., englewood cliffs, SA, 590p.

Knudsen D., Peterson G.A., and Pratt P.F. 1982. Lithium, sodium, potassium. p. 225-246. In: A. L. Page et al. (Ed.) Methods of soil analysis: Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Monograph Number 9.

Kavianpoor A.H., Jafarian Jeloudar Z., Esmali Ouri A., and Kavian A. 2015. Effect of Vegetation on Runoff Reduction and Soil Loss Using Rainfall Simulation in Rangelands of Mazandaran Province. Geography and Environmental Planning, 2: 179-190. (In Persian)

Lang R.D. 1990. The effect of ground cover on runoff and erosion from plots at scone, New South Wales. Unpubl M.Sc. Thesis, School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Li T., and Gao Y. 2015. Runoff and sediment yield variations in response to precitiation changes: A case study of Xichuan watershed in the loess plateau, china. Advance Water Science, 7: 5638-5656.

Li Z.Y., Wang G.Z., Qu J.G., Xu J.Z., and Yan D. 2017. Efects of rain intensity and land use on the loss of organic matter in the mountainous area of southwest. Bull Soil Water Conservation,1:29-33. 

Mohammad A.G., and Adam M.A. 2010. The impact of vegetative cover type on runoff and soil erosion under different land uses. Catena, 81: 97-103.

Morgan R.P.C. 2005. Soil Erosion and Conservation. Third Ed. Blackwell Publishing Company, 304p. 

Nyakatawa E.Z., Jakkula K.C., Reddy J.L., Lemunyon B.E., and Norris J.R. 2007. Soil erosion estimation in conservation tillage systems with poultry litter application using RUSLE 2.0 model. Soil and Tillage Research, 94: 410-419.

Qi. Y., Jeremy, L., Darilek, B.H., Yongcun, Zh., Weixia, S., and Zhiquan, Gu. 2009. Evaluating soil quality indices in an agricultural region of Jiangsu Province, China. Geoderma, 149: 325-334.

Reynolds W.D., Drury C.F., Tan C.S., Fox C.A., and Yang X.M. 2009. Use of indicators and pore volume-function characteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma, 152: 252-263.

Rimal B.K., and Lal R. 2009. Soil and carbon losses from five different land management areas under simulated rainfall. Soil and Tillage Research, 106: 62-70.

Seeger M. 2007. Uncertainty of factors determining runoff and erosion processes as quantified by rainfall simulations. Catena, 71: 56-67.

Shahab H., Emami H., Haghnia G.H., and Karimi A. 2011. Determination the optimal range of pore volume distribution by using of soil physical quality indicators and effect of soil properties on Sgi Index. Journal of Water and Soil, 25(4): 881-891. (In Persian)

Sheirdan G.J., Noske P.J., Lane P.N.J., and Sherwin C.B. 2008. Using rainfall simulation and site measurements to predict annual interrill erodibility and  phosphorus generation rate from unsealed forest roada: Validation against in-situ erosion measurements. Catena 73: 49-62.

Shukla M.K., Lal R., and Ebinger M. 2004. Principal component analysis for predicting corn biomass and grian yield. Soil Science, 169: 215-224.

Soleimani K., and Azmoodeh A. 2010. Investigating the role of land use change some of physical, chemical  properties and soil erodibility. Natural Geography Research, 74: 111-124. (In Persian)

Vaezi A.R., Bahrami H.A., Sadeghi H.R., and Mahdian M.H. 2008. Determining the estimating error of  USLE erodibility factors in calcareous soils of Northwestern Iran. Journal of Water and Soil, 22(2): 61-71. (In Persian)

Xinxiao Y., Xuexia Z., Jianlao L., Manliang Z., and Yuanyuan X. 2006. Effects of vegetation cover and precipitation on the process of sediment produced by erosion in a small watershed of loess region. Acta Ecological Sinica, 26: 1-8.

Yin Z.D, Zhou X.C., and Zhu J.Z. 2003. Study on the factors affecting soil erosion. World Forestry Research, 16: 32-36.

Zarrin Kafsh M. 1994. Applied Soil Science: Soil Survey and Soil-Plant-Water analysis. Tehran university Press, Tehran, 236p. (In persian)