ارزیابی اثر تغییر کاربری اراضی از مرتع به گندم دیم بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک با استفاده از شاخص کیفیت خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

چکیده
فعالیت­های کشاورزی به ویژه گندم دیم یکی از عوامل اصلی تخریب مراتع طبیعی در غرب ایران است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر درازمدت تغییر کاربری مرتع به گندم دیم (40 سال) بر برخی ویژگی­های خاک در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی سارال واقع در استان کردستان انجام شد. نمونههای خاک از عمق صفر تا 25 سانتی‎متری به صورت تصادفی جمع­آوری شدند. برخی از ویژگی­های خاک شامل بافت خاک، جرم مخصوص ظاهری، میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه‌ها، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، هدایت الکتریکی، pH، کربنات کلسیم معادل، کربن آلی و نیتروژن کل و همچنین میزان قابل دسترس عناصر منیزیم، کلسیم، پتاسیم، فسفر، نیترات و آمونیوم اندازه‎گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که تغییر کاربری از مرتع بکر به زمین کشاورزی سبب کاهش معنی‎دار کیفیت خاک در مورد تمامی شاخص­های مورد بررسی، به غیر از جرم مخصوص ظاهری، کربنات کلسیم معادل، فسفر، منیزیم، آمونیوم و نیترات شد. تعیین شاخص کیفیت خاک (SQI) با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل مؤلفه‎های اصلی (PCA) نشان داد که کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، رس و سیلت در حدود 90 درصد واریانس کل را به خود اختصاص داده­اند، که به عنوان مجموعه حداقل داده‎ها در محاسبه  SQIانتخاب شدند. نتایج شاخص SQI نشان داد که میزان این شاخص در مرتع بکر (58/1) به طور چشم­گیری بیشتر از زمین زراعی (72/0) است، که نشان دهنده تخریب کیفیت خاک در نتیجه عملیات کشت و کار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment Effect of Land Use Change from Rangeland to Rainfed Wheat on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Soil Quality Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Karami
  • Zahed Sharifi
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Agricultural activities, especially rainfed wheat, is one of the main reason of the destruction of natural rangeland in the west of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing natural rangeland to rainfed wheat for 40 years on some soil properties at the Saral Agricultural Research Station in Kurdistan province. Soil samples were collected from 0–25 cm depth randomly. Some soil properties such as soil texture, bulk density, mean weight diameter, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, total nitrogen, total organic carbon and available amount of Mg, Ca, K, P, NO3 and NH4 were measured. The results showed that land use change from rangeland to rainfed wheat significantly reduces soil quality with regard to all investigated properties except bulk density, calcium carbonate equivalent, P, K, NO3 and NH4. Determination of soil quality index (SQI) using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that total organic carbon, total nitrogen, clay and silt almost justify more than 90% of the variance, which were selected as the minimum data set in the SQI calculation. The results of SQI showed that the index was significantly higher in rangeland (1.58) than in cropland (0.72), indicating degradation of soil quality by cultivating operations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use change
  • Physical and chemical properties of soil
  • Soil quality index
  • Minimum data set
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