نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 حاصلخیزی و تغذیه

3 استاد علوم خاک گرگان

4 گروه علوم خاک ، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

افزودن عناصر سنگین به خاک، باعث تغییر الگوی اصلی توزیع عناصر سنگین در خاک می­شود و توزیع عناصر سنگین در خاک بستگی به نوع عنصر، سطح کاربرد، زمان افزودن عناصر و ویژگی­های خاک دارد. این تحقیق جهت بررسی اثر اصلاح­کننده­های آلی و معدنی بر توزیع شکل­های کادمیم در طول زمان انکوباسیون در خاک انجام گردید. تیمارها شامل کاربرد سه سطح (0، 1 و 5 درصد وزنی) اصلاح­کننده­های آلی (بیوچار تهیه شده در دمای 640 درجه سلسیوس و بیوچار تهیه شده در دمای 420 درجه سلسیوس)، اصلاح­کننده­های معدنی (زئولیت، بنتونیت، لیکا و پومیس) و دو زمان (90 و 180 روز) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار بود. در پایان زمان انکوباسیون، توزیع شکل­های کادمیم با روش عصاره­گیری دنباله­ای تسیر تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد گذشت زمان باعث افزایش کادمیم در بخش­های تبادلی (05/6 درصد)، کربناتی (25/13 درصد) و کاهش کادمیم در بخش­های اکسید آهن و منگنز (41/7 درصد)، آلی (74/10 درصد) و باقیمانده (98/2 درصد) گردید که بیشترین کاهش غلظت کادمیم در بخش تبادلی با گذشت زمان از 90 به 180 روز در سطح 5 درصد بنتونیت مشاهد گردید که این کاهش معادل 89/1 درصد بود. همچنین، افزودن اصلاح­کننده­های آلی (بیوچار 640 و بیوچار 420) و اصلاح­کننده­های معدنی (پومیس، لیکا، زئولیت و سطح 5 درصد بنتونیت) به خاک، موجب کاهش معنی­دار غلظت کادمیوم در بخش تبادلی نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید که بیشترین کاهش در سطح 5 درصد بیوچار 640 مشاهده گردید که در مقایسه با شاهد، کاهشی معادل 79/41 درصد را نشان داد. اصلاح­کننده­های آلی و معدنی برای تثبیت کادمیم در خاک موثر بودند، اما ظرفیت تثبیت اصلاح­کننده­های آلی (بیوچار 640 و 420) نسبت به اصلاح­کننده­های معدنی (پومیس، لیکا، زئولیت و بنتونیت) بیشتر بود. اصلاح­کننده­های آلی به دلیل ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و کربن آلی بالایی که نسبت به اصلاح­کننده­های معدنی دارند، در تثبیت فلزات موثرتر بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Amendments on Fractionation of Cadmium during Incubation Time in a Contaminated Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Sefidgar shahkolaie 1
  • Farhad Khormali 3
  • Esmael Dordipour 4

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan,

3 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

4 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The addition of heavy metals to the soil leads to change of their original distribution pattern. Distribution of heavy metals in soil depends on the type of metal, application level, time and soil characteristics as well. In order to study the effect of organic amendments (bichar 640 and 420) and inorganic amendments (zeolite, bentonite, leca and pumice) on chemical forms of Cd during incubation time in a calcareous soil, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 levels of amendments application in soil (0, 1 and 5 %) in three replications. Chemical distribution of Cd in soil was determined using Tessier sequential extraction method during 90- and 180-days incubation time. Results showed that during incubation time, Cd concentration increased in exchangeable (6.05%), carbonated (13.25) and decreased the oxide fraction (7.41%), organic fraction (10.74%) and residual fractions (2.98%) during the time. The application of bentonite (5%) were the most effective treatment in decreasing Cd concentration in exchangeable fraction during the incubation time that this decrease was 1.89%. Application of the organic amendments (biochar 640 and biochar 420) and inorganic amendments (pumice, leca bentonite, and zeolite) decreased the exchangeable fraction of Cd compared to the control. Application of 5% (w/w) of biochar 640 showed the highest decreasing the exchangeable fraction of Cd that compared to the control, it showed a decrease of 41.79%. The organic and inorganic amendments were effective on the immobilization of Cd in soil. However, the organic amendments were more efficient in immobilization of Cd than the inorganic amendments. These results might due to the high amount of organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the organic amendments than the inorganic amendments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • incubation
  • sequential extraction
  • Cadmium
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