اثر کشت آفتابگردان، کود دامی و لجن فاضلاب بر فراهمی عناصر، pH و EC یک خاک قلیایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

کشت گیاه و مصرف مواد آلی میتواند ویژگیهای شیمیایی خاک و فراهمی عناصر غذایی را تغییر دهد. در یک تحقیق گلخانهای، اثر کشت گیاه آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)، لجن فاضلاب و کود دامی بر فراهمی عناصر، pH و هدایت الکتریکی محلول یک خاک قلیایی در شرایط غرقاب بررسی گردید. آزمایش بهصورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با دو تکرار، شامل مدت غرقاب در 10 سطح (1، 3، 5، 7، 9، 12، 15، 17، 19 و 22 روز)، منبع مواد آلی در دو سطح (کود دامی و لجن فاضلاب)، مقدار مواد آلی در سه سطح )صفر، 15 و 30 گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک( و کشت گیاه در دو سطح (با و بدون کشت آفتابگردان) انجام شد. گلدانها در مرحله شش برگی آفتابگردان غرقاب شدند و در طول این دوره، 5-3 سانتیمتر آب در سطح خاک نگهداری شد. نتایج نشان داد که pH محلول خاک گلدانهای بدون کشت در تمامی تیمارهای مورد مطالعه پس از غرقاب افزایش یافت. pH محلول خاک گلدانهای بدون کشت پس از کاربرد لجن فاضلاب کاهش ولی پس از کاربرد کود دامی افزایش یافت.  pHمحلول خاک گلدان­های با کشت آفتابگردان کمتر از گلدانهای بدون کشت بود. در تیمار شاهد، EC محلول خاک پس از غرقاب ابتدا افزایش و پس از رسیدن به یک حداکثر مجدداً کاهش یافت. کاربرد کود دامی و لجن فاضلاب EC محلول خاک را افزایش داد و میزان افزایش با کاربرد کود دامی بیشتر بود. در تمامی تیمارها، EC محلول خاک گلدانهای با کشت آفتابگردان با EC محلول خاک گلدانهای بدون کشت متفاوت بود. فراهمی P، K، Na، Fe، Mn، Cu و Zn در خاک گلدانهای باکشت آفتابگردان بیشتر از خاک گلدانهای بدون کشت بود ولی میانگینCd  و Pb قابل­جذب در خاک گلدانهای باکشت آفتابگردان تفاوت قابلملاحظهای با خاک گلدانهای بدون کشت نداشت.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Sunflower Cultivation, Manure and Sewage Sludge on Availability of Elements, pH and EC of an Alkaline Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosrat allah Najafi 1
  • Sanie Mardomi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University
2 Former Graduate Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University
چکیده [English]

       Plant cultivation and application of organic matter can change chemical properties of soil and elements availability. In a greenhouse investigation, the effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivation, animal manure and sewage sludge on changes in pH and EC of an alkaline soil solution after waterlogging were studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with two replications including duration of waterlogging at 10 levels (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22 days), source of organic fertilizer at two levels (animal manure, sewage sludge), amount of organic fertilizer at three levels (0, 15, 30 g/kg) and plant cultivation at two levels (cultivated and uncultivated) was carried out. The pots were waterlogged in the six-leaf stage of sunflower and during waterlogging period the water level was maintained 3-5 cm above the soil surface. The results showed that by increasing the duration of soil waterlogging, the pH of soil solution in uncultivated pots and all treatments increased. The pH of soil solution in uncultivated pots decreased after application of sewage sludge while increased after application of animal manure. The pH of soil solution in sunflower cultivated pots was lower than uncultivated pots. In control treatment, after waterlogging the EC of soil solution initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum. The EC of soil solution in uncultivated pots increased after application of sewage sludge and animal manure and the increase was greater with application of animal manure. In all treatments, the EC of soil solution in sunflower cultivated pots was different from uncultivated pots. The effect of sunflower cultivation on the availability of elements at the end of plant growth period was studied. The results showed that the availability of P, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in sunflower cultivated pots was greater than uncultivated pots but the availability of Cd and Pb in cultivated pots was not significantly different from uncultivated pots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Manure
  • Rhizosphere
  • Sewage sludge
  • Sunflower
  • waterlogging
References

Ahad MA and Debnath NC. 1989. Phosphorus availability and pH changes in the rhizosphere of rice, maize, soybean and jute. Journal of Andaman Science Association, 5: 27-30.

Arshi Y. 1373. Sunflower science and technology (Translate). Cotton and Oil Seed Institute Publication. Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi with English Summary)

BalkcomKS, Adams JF, Hartzog DL and Wood CW. 2001. Mineralization of composted municipal sludge under field conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 32 9: 1589-1605.

Barber SA. 1995. Soil nutrient bioavailability: A mechanistic approach. 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

Bolan NS and Duraisamy VP. 2003. Role of inorganic and organic soil amendments on immobilisation and phytoavailability of heavy metals: A review involving specific case studies. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 41:533-555.

Brollier S, Smith SR, Henry CL and Harrison RB. 1992. Changes in soil chemistry: Seventeen years of municipal sludge application in forests. Agro. Abstracts, 33, ASA, Madison, WI.

Dakora FD and Phillips DA. 2002. Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant and Soil, 245: 35-47. 

Dane, J.H. and G.C. Topp. 2002. Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Physical methods. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Publisher, USA.

Gouim FR. 1985. Growth of hardy chrysanthemums in containers of media amended with composted municipal sewage sludge. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 3: 53-55.

HanafiMN and Leslee Ng CH. 1996. Dissolution of phosphate rock in the rhizosphere of upland rice soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 27: 1459-1477.

Havlin JL, Beaton J.D, Tisdale SL and Nelson WL. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management. 6th Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.

Hinsinger P, Plassard C, Tang C and Jaillard B. 2003. Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: A review.  Plant and Soil, 248: 43-59.

Hinsinger P. 2001. Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root-induced chemical changes: A review. Plant and Soil, 237: 173-195.

Jaillard B, Plassard C and Hinsinger P. 2003. Measurement of H+ fluxes and concentrations in the rhizosphereIn. Z. Rengel (ed.) Handbook of soil acidity. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA., 231-266 p.

Jauert P, Schumacher TE, Boe A and Reese RN. 2002. Rhizosphere acidification and cadmium uptake by strawberry clover. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31:627-633.

Jianguo H and Shuman LM. 1991. Phosphorus status and utilization in the rhizosphere of rice. Soil Science, 152: 360-364.

Jone JBJr. 1997. Hydroponics: A Practical guide for the soilless Grower. CRC Press, London, New York.

Jun W, Zhen SH and Ming ZD. 1985. Electrical conductivity. In: Ren, Y.T.(ed). Physical chemistry of paddy aoils. Science Press, Beijing, China, 157-177 p.

Kalbasi M. 1375. The role of compost on organic matter status of Iranian soils. The Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Iranian Soil Science, 10-13 Shahrivar, Agricultural College of Karaj, Karaj. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Kirk GJD. 2004. The biogeochemistry of submerged soils. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.، Chichester, England.

Laboski CAM and Lamp JA. 2003. Changes in soil test phosphorus concentration after application of manure or fertilizer. Soil Science Society American Journal, 67: 544-554.

Larson KD, Graetz DA and Schaffer B. 1991. Flood-induced chemical transformations in calcareous agricultural soils of South Florida. Soil Science, 152: 33-40.

Maftoun M and Moshiri F. 2008. Growth, mineral nutrition and selected soil properties of lowland rice, as affected by soil application of organic wastes and phosphorus. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 10: 481-492.

Mandal LN and Mitra RR. 1982. Transformation of iron and manganese in rice soils under different moisture regimes and organic matter applications. Plant and Soil, 69: 45-56.

Marschner H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Ed. Academic Press, London.

Najafi N and Parsazadeh M. 1390. Effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on EC and pH changes in spinach rhizosphere in hydroponics culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Cultures, 2(5): 44-29. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Najafi N. and Tofigi H. 1385. Study on the effect of rice plants rhizosphere on inorganic forms of phosphorous in paddy soils of Northern Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 37(5): 919-933. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Najafi N. and Towfighi H. 2008.  Changes in pH, EC and concentration of phosphorus in soil solution during submergence and rice growth period in some paddy soils of north of Iran. 555-567p. In: Proceedings of the International Meeting on Soil Fertility, Land Management, and Agroclimatology, 29 October - 1 November, Kusadasi, Turkey.

Narteh LT and Sahrawat KL. 1999. Influence of flooding on electrochemical and chemical properties of West African soils. Geoderma, 87: 179-207.

Neumann G and Romheld V. 1999. Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in phosphorus-deficient plants. Plant and Soil, 211: 121-130.

 Orchard PW and Jessop RS. 1984. The response of sorghum and sunflower to short-term waterlogging. I. Effects of stage of development and duration of waterlogging on growth and yield. Plant and Soil, 81:119-132.

Orchard PW and So HB. 1985. The response of sorghum and sunflower to short-term waterlogging. II. Changes in the soil environment under waterlogged conditions. Plant and Soil, 88: 407-419.

Page AL, Miller RH and Keeney DR. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Patrick WH and Mahapatra IC. 1968. Transformation and availability to rice of nitrogen and phosphorus in waterlogged soils. Advances in Agronomy, 20: 323-359.

Pazandeh H. 1371. Electrochemistry for engineers. 3rdEd.TehranUniversity Publication.  206 p. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Peters J. 2003. Recommended methods of manure analysis. Cooperative Extension Publishing, University of Wisconsin, USA.

Pinton R, Varanini Z and Nannipieri P. 2007. The rhizosphere: Biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

Romheld 1990 V. The soil-root interface in relation to mineral nutrition. Symbiosis, 9: 19-27.

Ryan PR, Richardson AE and Delhaize E. 2004. The Rhizosphere: An example of plants modifying their environment to benefit their survival. 38p. In: Proceedings of Rhizosphere International Congress, 12-17 September, Munich, Germany.

Seguin V, Gagnon C and Courchesne F. 2004. Changes in water extractable metals, pH and organic carbon concentrations at the soil-root interface of forested soils. Plant and Soil, 260: 1-17. 

Shuman LM and Wang J. 1997. Effect of rice variety on zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganes content in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil fractions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 28: 23-36.

Silber A, Neumann RG and Ben-Jacov J. 1998. Effects of nutrient addition on growth and rhizosphere pH of Leucadendron "Safari Sunset". Plant and Soil, 199: 205-211.

Singh RP and Agrawal M. 2007. Effect of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of Beta vulgaris palnts. Chemosphere, 67: 2229-2240.

Singh RP and Agrawal M. 2008. Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Management, 28: 347-358.

Sinha BK and Singh NT. 1974. Effect of transpiration rate on salts accumulation around corn roots in a saline soil. Agronomy Journal, 66: 557-560.

Tofigi H, Najafi N. 1380. Study on changes of pH, Eh and dissolved zinc during flooding on rice growth in tow paddy soil. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Vasegi S, Afyoni M, shariatmadari H and Mobli M. 1382. Effect of sewage sludge and soil pH on the availability of trace elements and heavy metals. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology and Natural Resources, 7 (3): 95-106. (in Farsi with English Summary)

Waling I, VarkWV, Houba VJG and Van der lee JJ. 1989. Soil and plant analysis. A series of syllabi. Part 7. Plant analysis procedures. WageningenAgricultureUniversity, The Netherlands.

Walker DJ, Celemente R and Bernal MP. 2004. Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyritic mine waste. Chemosphere, 57: 215-224.

Westerman RL. 1990. Soil Testing and Plant analysis. 3rd Ed. Soil Science Society of America Book Series, Number 3, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.