اثر برهم‌کنش مواد آلی و کرم خاکی بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی وشیمیایی دو خاک در شرایط تراکمی متفاوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضوهیات علمی دانشگا اردبیل

2 کارشناسی ارشد

چکیده

اگرچه پژوهش­های مختلف نشان داده است که کرم­های خاکی از طریق فعالیت تغذیه­ای، ترشح کست و حفاری می­توانند بر ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک تأثیر بگذارند ولی اثر برهم­کنش مواد آلی و کرم خاکی بر خاکدانه­سازی در شرایط تراکمی و  بافتی متفاوت به­خوبی شناخته نشده است. در این پژوهش اثر برهم­کنش کرم خاکی ایسینیا فتیدا و مواد آلی بر برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی دو خاک ریز و درشت بافت منتخب از دشت مغان واقع در شمال غرب ایران در دو سطح تراکمی بررسی گردید. آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 24 تیمار و 3 تکرار در شرایط اتاق رشد و به­­مدت 6 ماه اجرا شد. فاکتور اول کلاس بافت خاک در دو سطح لوم رسی و لوم شنی، فاکتور دوم مواد آلی در سه سطح بدون مواد آلی، کاه و کلش گندم و کود گاوی پوسیده هر دو به مقدار 20 گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک، فاکتور سوم دو سطح فشردگی خاک شامل 3/1و g cm-3 45/1و فاکتور چهارم حضور یا عدم حضور کرم خاکی بود. نتایج نشان داد هر دو ماده آلی مصرفی به­طور متوسط باعث افزایش معنی­دار کربن آلی (69 درصد)، کلسیم محلول (75/11 درصد) و میانگین وزنی­قطر (MWD) خاکدانه­ها (78 درصد) و کاهش معنی­دار چگالی ظاهری (6/3 درصد) در هر دو کلاس بافت خاک گردید. همچنین بیشترین اثرات مثبتبر ساختمان خاک در تیمار کاه و کلش با بافت لوم رسی و حضور کرم خاکی به­دلیل مقادیر زیاد کربن، کلسیم، منیزیم و رس دیده شد. تلقیح خاک با کرم خاکی در تیمار فشردگیg cm-3 45/1موجب افزایش معنی­دار MWD به­میزان 10 و 6/16 درصد و تخلخل کل به­میزان 6/5 و 6 درصد به­ترتیب در کلاس بافت لوم شنی و لوم رسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از کرم خاکی می­تواند موجب ارتقای کیفیت فیزیکی خاک­های ریز و درشت بافت متراکم با افزودن مقدار کم مواد آلی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

InteractiveEffects of Organic Matters and Earthworm on some Physical and chemical Properties of Two Soils under Different Compaction Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shokrollah Asghari 1
  • Mahshid Najafiyan 2
چکیده [English]

Although it has been known that earthworms through feeding, casting, and burrowing activity can influence soil physical and chemicalproperties, but interactive effects of organic matters and earthworm on aggregationunder different compaction and textural conditions, have been not wellknown. In thisstudy, the interactiveeffects of earthworm Eisenia fetida and organic matters on some physical and chemical properties of two fine- and coarse-textured soils selected from Moghan plain, northwest of Iranwere investigated in two compaction level. The factorial experiment was conducted asa completely randomizeddesignwith 24 treatments and 3 replicates under growth room conditions during 6 months. The 4 factors were: 2 soil textural classes (sandy loam and clay loam), 3 organic matter levels (0, 20 g kg-1 of wheat straw and cow manure), 2 soil compaction levels (1.3 and 1.45 g/cm3) and with or without earthworm. The results showed that on average, both used organic matters significantly increased organic carbon (OC) (by 69%), soluble Ca (by 11.75%), meanweight diameter (MWD) of aggregates (by 78%)and decreased bulk density (by 3.6%)in two soils. Also, the positive effects on the soil structure were much observed in the straw and clay loam with earthworm treatment due to the high contents of OC, Ca, Mg and clay.soil with earthworm in compaction level of 1.45 g/cm3, significantly increased MWD by 10 and 16.6% and total porosity by 5.6 and 6% in sandy loam and clay loam soils, respectively. Theresults indicated that application of earthworm to the compacted soilscan improve physical quality of fine- and coarse-textured soils by using minimum organic matter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aggregate stablity
  • Compaction
  • Eisenia fetida
  • Organic carbon
  • Soil texture
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