Document Type : Original Article


1 Soil science, Agriculture, Ferdowsi university, Mashhad, Iran

2 Soil Science, Agriculture, Ferdowsi, Mashhad, Iran

3 Soil science, ferdowsi university of mashhad, Iran

4 Soil science dept, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) on some soil bioindicators and availability of cadmium in a polluted calcareous soil. This research was carried out in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included two levels of Cd (0 and 40 mg kg-1 soil), two levels of nHAP (0 and 1%) and two incubation times (14 and 28 days). The cadmium chloride solution was uniformly sprayed on the soil surface and equilibrated for a month, then nHAP was added to the soil at 0 and 1 w/w %. The activity of urease, dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, basal respiration and bioavilable Cd were measured after 14 and 28 days. Bioavilable Cd was extracted by DTPA. The results showed that the addition of nHAP in the Cd contaminated soil decreased bioavailable Cd by 2.3%, increased the activity of urease enzyme by 98% while had no effect on the activity of phosphatase, dehydrogenase and basal respiration. Investigation of changes of bioindicators in 14 and 28 days incubation in Cd contaminated soil showed that the activity of urease and dehydrogenase enzyme had a declining trend but the activity of phosphatase enzyme and basal respiration did not significantly change. It was also found that bioavailable Cd decreased with incubation time by 10.7%. In general, it may be concluded that nHAP influenced biological index in the calcareous soil differently, but it caused reduction effect on bioavailable cadmium in soil, although this reduction was not considerable.


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