جداسازی، شناسایی و اندازه‌گیری ویژگی‌های افزآیندگی رشد جدایه‌های ازتوباکتر از نمونه‌ خاک‌های شمال‌غرب کشور با کاربری گوناگون

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

2 دانشگاه بوعای سینا همدان

3 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز

4 دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

ازتوباکتر از باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن در خاک بوده که از راه‌های گوناگونی مایه افزایش رشد گیاه می‌شود. فراوانی و فعالیّت آن‌ها در خاک وابسته به ویژگی‌های خاک و کاربری آن است. بر این پایه برای جداسازی و شناسایی برخی از ازتوباکترهای افزآینده رشد گیاه، 50 نمونه خاک به گونه بختانه ‌از کاربری‌های گوناگون در سه استان آذربایجان شرقی، اردبیل و گیلان از لایه صفر تا 25 سانتی‌متری خاک نمونه‌برداری شد. برای جداسازی ازتوباکترها از روش خمیره خاک بهره‌گیری شد و ناب‌سازی آن‌ها با استفاده از کشتگاه LG و Nutrient Agar انجام گرفت. در این بررسی در آغاز 50 جدایه جداسازی شد که بر پایه ویژگی‌های فنوتیپی و ریخت‌شناسی جدایه‌ها و چگونگی رشد آن‌ها در کشتگاه‌های یادشده، جدایه‌های همانند کنار گذاشته شده و شناسایی نه جدایه به نام‌های 2SP-5، 14SPI، 14SP2-1، 16SP-2، 34SPIII، 35SP، 35SP-2،43SP-2 و 44SP-2 همراه با آزمون توانایی افزایندگی رشد آنها انجام شد. نتایج شناسایی مولکولی (16S rDNA) نشان داد که از میان نه جدایه، پنج جدایه 14SPI، 14SP2-1، 16SP-2، 35SP و 44SP-2 ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم بوده و جدایه 34SPIII و 35SP-2 سودوموناس و جدایه 2SP-5 و 43SP-2 بیجرینکیا شناخته شدند. یافته‌های بررسی ویژگی‌های افزایندگی رشد گیاه نیز نشان داد که بیش‌ترین تثبیت نیتروژن در ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم جدایه‌ 14SP2-1 به‌دست آمد و بالاترین توانایی حل کنندگی فسفر و ساخت اکسین در باکتری سودوموناس جدایه 34SPIII دیده شد. از دیدگاه آزادسازی پتاسیم نیز باکتری‌های ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم جدایه‌ 44SP-2 و 14SP2-1 توانایی بالاتری نشان دادند. ازتوباکترهای به‌دست آمده همگی متعلق به گونه ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم بودند که از نمونه خاک‌های دو استان آذربایجان شرقی و گیلان با کاربری پوشش مرتعی و شالیزار به دست آمدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Isolation, identification, and determination of plant growth promoting properties of Azotobacteria isolated from soil samples North-west of Iran under different land-use

چکیده [English]

Azotobacter is free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria that it leading to promoting plants growth through various ways. Frequency and distribution of Azotobacter is affected by soil use and its properties. Accordingly, this study aimed to isolate and identify some of plant growth promoting (PGP) Azotobacters. To this end, 50 soil samples were taken randomly from depth 0-25-cm under different land-uses in three provinces viz. Eastern-Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Gilan. Soil paste method was used for isolation of these bacteria and purification was done in LG and NA media. We first isolated 50 bacterial isolates based on the phenotypic and morphological properties. And then we selected nine isolates of them for detailed and deep studies (including 2SP-5, 14SPI, 14SP2-1, 16SP-2, 34SPIII, 35SP, 35SP-2, 43SP-2 and 44SP-2). Results of molecular identification of bacteria (16S rDNA) revealed that among nine isolates, the five isolates (viz. 14SPI, 14SP2-1, 16SP-2, 35SP and 44SP-2) belonged to Azotobacter chroococcum, and isolates 34SPIII and 35SP-2 belonged to Pseudomonas sp. while 2SP-5 and 43SP-2 were identified as Beijerinckia sp. We also found the highest N fixation, and P solubility and auxin production were recorded by A. chroococcum 14SP2-1 and Pseudomonas sp. 34SPIII, respectively. Maximum potassium releasing was observed by A. chroococcum 14SP2-1 and 44SP-2. In this study, all the identified Azotobacteria belonged to A. chroococcum which isolated from the pasture, corn and rice lands of East Azerbaijan and Gilan provinces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Molecular identification of bacteria
  • N-fixing bacteria
  • Soil paste
  • Plant growth promoting properties
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