اثر کیفیت آب آبیاری بر برخی شاخص‌های فیزیکی خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیآت علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

2 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

3 دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

4 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

ویژگی‌های ساختمانی خاک که تابع توزیع اندازه منافذ می‌باشند، شاخص‌های فیزیکی مهمی از خاک بوده که رشد و توسعه ریشه و گیاه را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهند. کیفیت آب آبیاری با تأثیر بر غلظت نمک‌ها و قلیائیت محلول خاک، ساختمان خاک را تغییر می‌دهد. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی کیفیت آب آبیاری بر توزیع اندازه منافذ خاک، تخلخل تهویه‌ای، منحنی مشخصه رطوبتی و مقاومت فروروی یک خاک لوم‌رسی اجرا گردید. ترکیبی از سه سطح شوری با در نظر گرفتن هدایت الکتریکی (EC) برابر با 1، 6 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر و سه سطح سدیمی بودن با در نظرگرفتن نسبت جذبی سدیم (SAR) برابر با 1، 5 و 12 (meq L-1)0.5 برای شبیه‌سازی کیفیت‌های متفاوت آب آبیاری به‌کار رفت. نمونه‌های دست‌نخورده خاک (ارتفاع 45 و قطر درونی 51 میلی‌متر) با محلول‌های ساخته شده، طی پنج دوره اشباع و خشک شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در هر SAR با افزایش EC، میزان منافذ درشت و تخلخل تهویه‌ای افزایش یافت که احتمالاً در نتیجه اثرات مثبت شوری بر هم‌آوری ذرات خاک که در ایجاد ساختمان پایدار مؤثر است، می‌باشد. همچنین به دلیل افزایش منافذ ریز خاک (دارای قطر کوچک‌تر از 30 میکرون) و رطوبت نگهداری شده در آنها، رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی نیز افزایش یافت. از طرفی با افزایش شوری مقاومت فروروی خاک کاهش یافت که می‌تواند به دلیل ایجاد منافذ درشت در خاک باشد. همچنین به دلیل تغییر در منافذ در نتیجه‌ی کاهش ضخامت لایه دوگانه پخشیده و هم‌آوری ذرات، مقدار رطوبت اشباع افزایش یافت. در هر EC با افزایش SAR، به دلیل تخریب ساختمان خاک و پراکندگی ذرات، که منجر به افزایش میزان منافذ ریز می‌شود، رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی و آب نگهداری شده افزایش یافت. همچنین افزایش منافذ ریز و مقاومت فروروی و کاهش منافذ درشت و تخلخل تهویه‌ای با افزایش SARمشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Irrigation Water Quality on Some Soil Physical Indicators

نویسنده [English]

  • Azadeh Safadoust 1
چکیده [English]

Soil structural properties which are influenced by pore size distribution are important physical indicators of soil that affect plant and root growth. Irrigation water quality by affecting salt concentration and sodicity of soil solution alters the soil structure. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different water qualities on pore size distribution, aeration porosity, soil water characteristic and mechanical resistance curves of a clay loam soil, irrigated with different water qualities. A combination of three levels of EC (1, 6 and 10 dS m-1) and SAR (1, 5 and 12 (meq L-1)0.5) values were used to simulate the different types of irrigation water. The undisturbed soil samples (45 mm length and 51 mm inner diameter) were treated with solutions for 5 cycles of saturation and drying. The result showed that at each SAR, as water EC increased, the salinity enhanced the soil macroporosity and aeration porosity as a result of flocculation that is effective in development of stable structure. Due to increasing the micoporosity and water holding capacity, the amount of retained water in filed capacity was increased. Saturated water content was increased due to the effects of salinity on pore alteration, as a result of contraction of diffuse double layer and particle’s flocculation. It is also seen that penetration resistance decreased probably due to development of macro pore. At each EC level, as the sodicity of irrigation water (SAR) increased, the moisture content at field capacity and retained water were increased due to structural disruption, clay swelling and dispersion which lead to increased adsorptive and interlayer surfaces. It was also observed increasing in miroporosity and penetration resistance and decreasing in macroporosity and aeration porosity with increasing SAR.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dispersion
  • penetration resistance
  • macroporosity
  • flocculation
  • diffuse double layer
 
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