جذب عناصر غذایی کم‌مصرف تحت تأثیر برهمکنش کرم‌های خاکی (Eisenia fetida ) و قارچ مایکوریزا آربوسکولار (Funneliformis mosseae) در ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مطالعه حاضر به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر کرم خاکی (ایزینیا فتیدا) و قارچ مایکوریزا آربوسکولار (فنلی فرمیس موسه) و همچنین اثرات متقابل آن‌ها بر کلنیزاسیون ریشه، pH خاک، کربن آلی محلول و غلظت عناصر غذایی آهن، روی، مس و منگنز در ذرت انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل شاهد، کرم خاکی، مایکوریزا و کرم خاکی + مایکوریزا در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه ای در گلدان به اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که حضور کرم‌های خاکی در تیمار کرم خاکی + مایکوریزا اثر معنی‌داری بر درصد کلنیزاسیون ریشه در مقایسه با تیمار مایکوریزا نداشت. همچنین تیمارهای آزمایش به طور معنی‌داری موجب کاهش pH خاک نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند. اگرچه تیمارهای آزمایش به طور معنی‌داری موجب افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی گیاه، کربن آلی محلول خاک و فراهمی عناصر آهن، مس، روی و منگنز در خاک نسبت به شاهد شدند، با این حال تأثیر متفاوتی بر جذب عناصر به‌وسیله گیاه داشتند. بیشترین غلظت روی و منگنز در اندام هوایی گیاه در تیمار مایکوریزا به دست آمد، که از نظر آماری نسبت به سایر تیمارها معنی‌دار بود (p

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Uptake of micronutrients affected by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) interaction in Zea mays

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Dehghanian 1
  • Akram Halajnia 2
  • Amir lakzian 3
  • Ali Reza astaraei 4
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Associate professor, Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (F. mosseae) as well as their interactions on the root colonization, soil pH and soil dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration of iron, zinc, copper and manganese in maize. Experimental treatments included control, earthworm, mycorrhiza and earthworm + mycorrhiza was conducted in a completely randomized design in research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad with three replications. The results showed that the presence of earthworms in mycorrhiza + earthworm treatment had no significant effect on mycorrhizal root colonization compared with mycorrhiza treatment. The experimental treatments significantly reduced soil pH compared to the control treatment. Although experimental treatments significantly increased shoot dry weight, dissolved organic carbon and availability of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in the soil compared to control, however, it had a different effect on nutrient uptake by the plant. The highest concentration of Zn and Mn in shoot was obtained in mycorrhiza treatment that was statistically significant compared to other treatments (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Availability of nutrients
  • Dissolved organic carbon
  • Earthworm
  • Mycorrhizal symbiosis
  • Root colonization
Al-Karaki G.N. and Al-Raddad A. 1997. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress on growth and nutrient uptake of two wheat genotypes differing in droughtresistance.  Mycorrhiza, 7(2):83-88.

Alloway B.J. 2009. Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 31(5): 537-548.

Anderson R.C., Liberta A.E., and Dickman L.A. 1984. Interaction of vascular plants and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a soil moisture-nutrient gradient. Oecologia, 64(1): 111-117.

Antoniadis V. and Alloway B.J. 2002. The role of dissolved organic carbon in the mobility of Cd, Ni and Zn in sewage sludge-amended soils. Environmental Pollution, 117(3): 515-521.

Auge R.M. 2001. Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza, 11: 3-42.

Bityutskii N.P., Kaidun P.I., and Yakkonen K.L. 2012. The earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) primes the release of mobile and available micronutrients in soil. Pedobiologia, 55(2): 93-99.

Blouin M., Hodson M.E., Delgado E.A., Baker G., Brussaard L., Butt K.R., Dai J., Dendooven L., Peres G., Tondoh J.E., and Cluzeau D. 2013. A review of earthworm impact on soil function and ecosystem services. European Journal of Soil Science, 64(2): 161-182.

Bonkowski M., Griffiths B.S., and Ritz, K. 2000. Food preferences of earthworms for soil fungi. Pedobiologia, 44(6): 666-676.

Camel S.B., Franson R.L., Brown M.S., Bethlenfalvay G.J., Reyes-Solis M.G., and Ferrera-Cerrato R. 1991. Growth of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium through bulk soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55(2): 389-393.

Cao X., Chen Y., Wang X., and Deng X. 2001. Effects of redox potential and pH value on the release of rare earth elements from soil. Chemosphere, 44(4): 655-661.

Chapman H.D. 1965. Total exchangeable bases.In: Klute A. (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part  2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, pp. 902-904.

Chen B.D., Li X.L., Tao H.Q., Christie P., and Wong M.H. 2003. The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in zinc uptake by red clover growing in a calcareous soil spiked with various quantities of zinc. Chemosphere, 50(6): 839-846.

Cheng J. and Wong M.H. 2002. Effects of earthworms on Zn fractionation in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 36(1): 72-78.

Dodd J.C. 2000. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agro-and natural ecosystems. Outlook on Agriculture, 29(1): 55-55.

Dudley L.M., Mc Neal B.L., and Baham J.E. 1986. Time-dependent changes in soluble organics, copper, nickel, and zinc from sludge amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 15(2): 188-192.

Edwards C.A. and Bohlen P.J. 1995. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. 3rd Edition, ). Springer Science and Business Media. 426p.

Fisher E. and Molnar L. 1992. Environmental aspects of the chloragogenous tissue of earthworms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24(12): 1723-1727.

Gange A.C., Brown V.K., and Sinclair G.S. 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a determinant of plant community structure in early succession. Functional Ecology, 616-622.

Gormsen D., Olsson P.A., and Hedlund K. 2004. The influence of collembolans and earthworms on AM fungal mycelium. Applied Soil Ecology, 27(3): 211-220.

Harley J.L. and Smith S.E. 1983. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, New York, 483p.

Heggo A., Angle J.S., and Chaney R.L. 1990. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy metal uptake by soybeans. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22(6): 865-869.

Herbert B.E. and Bertsch P.M. 1995. Characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter in soil solution: a review. Carbon Forms and Functions in Forest Soils, pp. 63-88.

Johansson J.F., Paul L.R., and Finlay R.D. 2004. Microbial interactions in the mycorrhizosphere and their significance for sustainable agriculture. Microbiology Ecology, 48(1): 1-13.

Kizilkaya R. 2004. Cu and Zn accumulation in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. in sewage sludge amended soil and fractions of Cu and Zn in casts and surrounding soil. Ecological Engineering, 22(2): 141-151.

Kormanik P.P., Bryan W.C., and Schultz R.C. 1979. Procedures and equipment for staining large numbers of plant root samples for mycorrhizal assay. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 26: 537-538.

Kothari S.K., Marschner H., and Römheld V. 1991. Contribution of the VA mycorrhizal hyphae in acquisition of phosphorus and zinc by maize grown in a calcareous soil. Plant and Soil, 131(2): 177-185.

Lee Y.J. and George E. 2005. Contribution of mycorrhizal hyphae to the uptake of metal cations by cucumber plants at two levels of phosphorus supply. Plant and Soil, 278(1-2): 361-370.

Lehmann A., Barto E.K., Powell J.R., and Rillig M.C. 2012. Mycorrhizal responsiveness trends in annual crop plants and their wild relatives-a meta-analysis on studies from 1981 to 2010. Plant and Soil, 355(1-2): 231-250.

Lindsay W.L. and Norvell W.A. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3): 421-428.

Lussenhop J. 1996. Collembola as mediators of microbial symbiont effects upon soybean. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28(3): 363-369.

Martin A. 1991. Short-and long-term effects of the endogeic earthworm Millsonia anomala (Omodeo) (Megascolecidae, Oligochaeta) of tropical savannas, on soil organic matter. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 11(3): 234-238.

Malakouti M.J. and Tehrani M. M. 2005. The role of micronutrients in enhancing the quality and quantity of agricultural products and health promotion of society "micro-elements with large impacts". In partnership with the Tarbiat Modarres University. 450p. (In Persian)

Materechera S.A. 2002. Nutrient availability and maize growth in a soil amended with earthworm casts from a South African indigenous species. Bioresource Technology, 84(2): 197-201.

Miller R.M. and Jastrow J.D. 2000. Mycorrhizal fungi influence soil structure. In: Koltai H and Kapulnik Y. (Ed.). Arbuscular mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function, Springer Netherlands,    pp. 3-18.

Olsen S.R., Sommers L.E., and Page A.L. 1982. Phosphorus In: Page A.L. (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Agronomy Monograph, 9: 403-430.

Pattinson G.S., Smith S.E., and Doube B.M. 1997. Earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoides had no effect on the dispersal of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradicesSoil Biology and Biochemistry, 29(7): 1079-1088.

Ponder Jr.F., Li F., Jordan D., and Berry E.G. 2000. Assessing the impact of Diplocardia ornata on physical and chemical properties of compacted forest soil in microcosms. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 32: 166–172.

Prasad B., Sinha M.K., and Randhawa N.S. 1976. Effect of mobile chelating agents on diffusion of zinc in soils. Soil Science, 122(5): 260-266.

Ravindran B., Contreras-Ramos S.M., Wong J.W.C., Selvam A., and Sekaran G. 2014. Nutrient and enzymatic changes of hydrolysed tannery solid waste treated with epigeic earthworm            Eudrilus eugeniae and phytotoxicity assessment on selected commercial crops. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(1): 641-651.

Saleh Rastin N. 2001. Biological fertilizers and its role in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. The necessity for industrial production of biological fertilizers in the country. Publication of Agricultural Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Karaj. Iran. (In Persian)

Sauve S., Hendershot W., and Allen H.E. 2000. Solid-solution partitioning of metals in contaminated soils: dependence on pH, total metal burden, and organic matter. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(7): 1125-1131.

Sepehr A. 1998. Effects of potassium, magnesium, sulfur and micronutrients on increase the yield and improve the quality of sunflower. MSc Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Tarbiat Modares University. 108p. (In Persian)

Sizmur T. and Hodson M.E. 2009. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil?     A review. Environmental Pollution, 157(7): 1981-1989.

Smith S.E. and Read D.J. 2008.  Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic, San Diego Soils Laboratory Staff, Royal Tropical Institute (1984) Analytical methods of the service laboratory for soil, plant and water analysis. Part 1: Methods for Soil Analysis. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam.

Smith S.E. and Read D.J. 1997. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press., San Diego. 800p.

Subramanian K.S. and Charest C. 1997. Nutritional, growth, and reproductive responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation during and after drought stress at asselling. Mycorrhiza, 7(1): 25-32.

Sylvia D., Alagely A., Chellemi D., and Demchenko L. 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence tomato competition with bahiagrass. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34(6): 448-452.

Tao J., Chen X., Liu M., Hu F., Griffiths B., and Li H. 2009. Earthworms change the abundance and community structure of nematodes and protozoa in a maize residue amended rice-wheat rotation agro-ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(5): 898-904.

Tennant D. 1975. A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length.  Journal of Ecology, 995-1001.

Udovic M. and Lestan D. 2007. The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation. Environmental Pollution, 148(2): 663-668.

Walkley A. and Black I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29-38.

Weissenhorn I. and Leyval C. 1995. Root colonization of maize by a Cd-sensitive and a Cd-tolerant Glomus mosseae and cadmium uptake in sand culture. Plant and Soil, 175(2): 233-238.

Wen B., Hu X.Y., Liu Y., Wang W.S., Feng M.H., and Shan X.Q. 2004. The role of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in influencing bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 40(3): 181-187.

Wen B., Liu Y., Hu X.Y., and Shan X.Q. 2006. Effect of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in nine Chinese soils. Chemosphere, 63(7): 1179-1186.

Wu S.C., Cao Z.H., Li Z.G., Cheung K.C., and Wong M.H. 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125(1): 155-166.

Yu X., Cheng J., and Wong M. H. 2005. Earthworm–mycorrhiza interaction on Cd uptake and growth of ryegrass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37(2): 195-201.

Zhu B. and Alva A.K. 1993. Trace metal and cation transport in a sandy soil with various amendments. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57(3): 723-727.