تأثیر آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های اکسی‌تتراسایکلین (OTC) و سولفامتاکسازول (SMX) بر نیتریفیکاسیون بالقوه و فعالیت آنزیم‌های فسفاتاز قلیایی و اوره‌آز در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 هیات علمی گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

5 هیات علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فلورانس ایتالیا

چکیده

سالیانه مقادیر زیادی از آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های داروئی اکسی‌تتراسایکلین (OTC) و سولفامتوکسازول (SMX) برای درمان بیماری‌های عفونی و بهبود رشد دام و پرندگان در سراسر دنیا بکار می‌رود. بیش از 90 درصد آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های بکار رفته ممکن است به صورت ترکیب‌های اصلی یا به صورت متابولیت‌های کارا از سیستم بدن دام دفع شده و وارد محیط خاک شود که ممکن است اثرات نامطلوبی بر ریزجانداران غیرهدف اعمال کند. اثرات این آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها بر عملکرد جامعه میکروبی خاک هنوز به خوبی شناخته نشده است. در این پژوهش، برای بررسی تأثیر آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های سولفامتوکسازول و اکسی‌تتراسایکلین بر عملکردهای میکروبی خاک، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با فاکتورهای غلظت آنتی‌بیوتیک (0، 1، 10، 25، 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم)، زمان انکوباسیون (1، 4 و 21 روز) و نوع آنتی‌بیوتیک در شرایط آزمایشگاهی انجام شد. عملکرد جامعه میکروبی خاک با اندازه‌گیری فعالیت آنزیم‌های اوره‌آز و فسفاتاز قلیایی خاک و نیتریفیکاسیون بالقوه ارزیابی شد. نتایج اندازه‌گیری‌ها نشان داد که آنتی‌بیوتیک اکسی‌تتراسایکلین، فعالیت فسفاتاز قلیائی و اوره‌آز را در روز نخست انکوباسیون به شدت تحت تأثیر قرار داد ولی با افزایش زمان انکوباسیون فعالیت این آنزیم‌ها بازیابی شد. در حالی که آنتی‌بیوتیک سولفامتوکسازول فعالیت آنزیم‌های فسفاتاز قلیایی و اوره‌آز را در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد در دوره انکوباسیون جلوگیری کرد. تأثیر آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های اکسی‌تتراسایکلین و سولفامتوکسازول بر میزان نیتریفیکاسیون بالقوه خاک از الگوی یکسانی پیروی کرد به گونه‌ای که میزان نیتریفیکاسیون در روزهای نخست انکوباسیون با افزایش غلظت آنتی‌بیوتیک افزایش یافت ولی با گذشت زمان، این آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها اثرات نامطلوب بر نیتریفیکاسیون بالقوه داشتند. روهمرفته، آنتی‌بیوتیک OTC تأثیر نامطلوبی بر عملکردهای میکروبی خاک در روزهای نخست انکوباسیون داشت، در حالی که آنتی‌‌بیوتیک SMX اثرات پایدار بر عملکردهای میکروبی خاک اعمال کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotics on potential nitrification and alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in a calcareous soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • ALI MOLAEI 1
  • Amir Lakzian 2
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 4
چکیده [English]

Pharmaceutical antibiotics such as oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are highly consumed for the treatment of infectious diseases and to growth improvement in livestock and poultry industry every year. More than 90 percent of consumed antibiotics may be excreted from the animal's body as main compounds and bioactive metabolites, and introduced into the soil environment which may impose adverse effects on non-target microorganisms. The effects of antibiotics on soil microbial functions have not been well determined yet. In this study, in order to assess the impact of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole on soil microbial functions, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with factors of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 soil), time (1, 4 and 21 days) and kind of antibiotics in the laboratory conditions. Soil microbial community functions were evaluated by measuring the activities of alkaline phosphatase and urease and potential nitrification. The results showed that oxytetracycline severely affected alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in the first day of incubation. But, the activities of these enzymes were recovered with increasing the incubation time. While, sulfamethoxazole significantly inhibited activities of alkaline phosphatase and urease enzymes compared to control treatment during the incubation. The effect of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole on potential nitrification followed the same pattern so that nitrification rate increased with increasing concentrations of antibiotics in the early days of incubation, but these antibiotics had adverse effects on potential nitrification over time. Overall, OTC antibiotic exerted adverse effects on soil microbial functions in the early days of incubation, while SMX antibiotic exerted long term effects on soil microbial parameters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Potential nitrification
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Urease
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