اثر کمپوست زباله شهری، کود مرغی و گاوی بر قابلیت استفاده عناصر سنگین در سه بافت خاک مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

3 دانشگاه پیام نور

4 کارشناسی ارشد شیمی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

چکیده

مواد آلی یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل در باروری خاک هستند. منابع مختلفی در تأمین مواد آلی خاک نقش دارند. از جمله می‌توان به کمپوست زباله شهری، کودهای مرغی و گاوی اشاره کرد. این کودها در بسیاری از موارد حاوی مواد سمی و عناصر سنگینی هستند که برای سلامت انسان و حیوانات بسیار مضر می باشند. خطر و سمیت عناصر سنگین در خاک به شکل و مقدار آنها بستگی دارد. این پژوهش در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در استان همدان اجرا شده است. در این پژوهش ابتدا اثر کود آلی کمپوست زباله شهری در سه بافت مختلف رسی، لومی و لوم شنی تحقیق گردید. سپس تاثیر دو کود آلی گاوی و مرغی نیز در یک بافت لوم شنی مطالعه شد. تیمارهای اعمال شده 0، 20، 40، 80 و 120 تن در هکتار کودهای آلی بودند. غلظت قابل استفاده و کل عناصر روی، مس، نیکل، کادمیم، سرب و منگنز در هر تیمار اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان دادند که با افزایش مقدار کودهای آلی ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی خاک و مقدار کل و قابل استفاده عناصر سنگین نیز افزایش خواهند یافت. میزان قابل استفاده عناصر سنگین نسبت به میزان کل عناصر در سطح بسیار پایین‌تری قرار دارد. به طور کلی مشاهده شد که افزایش عناصر سنگین ناشی از کودهای آلی در خاک رسی بیشتر از دو بافت دیگر است. چرا که بافت رسی ظرفیت بالائی برای جذب عناصر سنگین دارد. در بین سه کود آلی کمپوست زباله شهری بیشترین تأثیر را در افزایش غلظت عناصر سنگین در خاک داشته است و بعد از آن کود مرغی تأثیر بالائی در افزایش غلظت عناصر سنگین به خاک را دارا بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of municipal waste solid compost, cow and Poultry manure on available heavy metal in three different soil texture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Eisa Ebrahimi 1
  • ghasem rahimi 2
  • Salahedin Moradi 3
  • mohsen yari 4
1 Young Researchers and Elite Club ,Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah,Iran
2 Assistant Prof. Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University. Hamadan.
4 MSc graduated, Soil chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan.
چکیده [English]

Organic matter is one of the most important factors in soil fertility. Different sources are involved in the supply of organic matter, including municipal solid waste compost, poultry and cow manure. These fertilizers often contain toxic substances and heavy metals which are extremely harmful for human and animal health. Toxicity and hazard of heavy metals in the soil is dependent on the form and amount of heavy metal. This research was conducted in a based on design completely randomized with three replications in Hamedan province. In this study, three types of soil texture (sandy loam, clay and loam) along with three types of organic fertilizers such as municipal solid waste compost, poultry and cow manure have been used in 5 levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 Ton/ha). Availability and total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn were measured in each treatment. The results showed that soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as availability and total amount of heavy metals were increased by enhancing the amount of organic fertilizers. The availability of heavy metals was much less than the total amount of elements. Overall, it was observed that increment of heavy metals caused by organic fertilizers was more in the clay soil compared to other soils because of the fact that clay texture showed high capacity for the uptake of heavy metals. Solid waste compost revealed the greatest effect on increasing the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil among other fertilizers while poultry manure was in the second place.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil pollution
  • zinc
  • Manganese
  • Organic matter
  • Nickel
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