ارزیابی تأثیر مالچ پارسیان و پلی اکریل آمید بر تولید رواناب و رسوب خاک‌های لوم شنی گچ‌دار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 رئیس بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری/ مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

2 عضو هیأت علمی/ دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 عضو هیأت علمی/ پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری

چکیده

تخمین مقدار جریان آب از درون خاک‌های دست نخورده، نهشته‏های رسوبی و یا خاک‌های متراکم شده، از جمله مسائل مهم در عملیات صحرایی است. چرا که در اثر پدیده تحکیم و انحلال مواد موجود در خاک، میزان نفوذپذیری و روان‌آب سطحی با گذشت زمان تغییر می‌کنند. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تغییرات روان‌آب و رسوب در خاک گچ‌دار با استفاده از دستگاه شبیه‌ساز باران در دشت ارایض استان خوزستان بود. تیمارهای پژوهش شامل خاک طبیعی (شاهد)، پلی اکریل آمید در دو سطح سه و شش گرم در مترمربع (P3 و P6) و مالچ پلیمری پارسیان(Pc) است که در بافت خاک لوم شنی گچ‌دار، با دو شدت بارندگی 32 و 50 میلی‏متر بر ساعت، دو شیب 5/7 و 5/12 درصد با سه تکرار اعمال گردیدند. برای مقایسه آماری تولید روان‌آب و رسوب، از طرح کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده استفاده شد. با بررسی تغییرات مقدار رسوب برای تیمارهای مختلف، مشخص شد که در هیچ یک از حالت‌های مالچ پاشی، رسوبی تولید نشده و تنها در حالتی که سطح خاک طبیعی بود (تیمار شاهد)، رسوب تولید شده است. با بررسی تغییرات روان‌آب برای تیمارهای مختلف، مشخص شد که استفاده از مالچ‌های P3، P6 و Pc در بیشتر موارد موجب افزایش تولید روان‌آب نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردیده است. مقایسه آماری میانگین مقدار کل روان-آب تولیدی نشان داد که تیمارهای شاهد، مالچ P3، P6 و Pc با همدیگر اختلاف معنی‌داری دارند. همچنین نتایج آشکار کرد که مقدار رسوب تولیدی در تیمار شاهد اختلاف معنی‌دار با مالچ P3، P6 و Pc دارد و تیمارهای P3، P6 و Pc تولیدی رسوبی نداشته و در یک گروه قرار می‌گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Parsian Mulch and Polyacrylamide Impact on the Runoff Generation and Sediment Yield of Sandy Loam Soils with Gypsum Base

نویسندگان [English]

  • Freidoon Soleimani 1
  • Ataollah Kavian 2
  • Foroud Sharifi 3
  • Karim Soleimani 2
  • Kaka Shahedi 2
چکیده [English]

The estimation of the amount of water flow through intact soils, sedimentary deposits or compacted soils is one of the most important issues in field operations. Because, the consolidation and dissolution of substances in soil, infiltration rate and surface runoff vary through the time. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of runoff and sediment production in gypsiferous soils using rainfall simulator in the Arayez plain, Khuzestan province. The treatments consisted of natural soil (Control), polyacrylamide at two levels 3 and 6 grams per square meter (P3 and P6, respectively) and Parsian mulch (Pc) that were conducted in sandy loam soil with three replications. The rainfall intensities were set up with 32 and 50 mm per hour in slopes 7.5 and 12.5 percent. For statistical comparisons, split split plot design was used. Results highlighted that sediment produced only in control treatment. The investigation of runoff changes in different treatments indicated that the use of mulch P3, P6 and Pc, in most cases, increased runoff volume compared to control treatment. Statistical comparison of the total amount of runoff indicated that control, mulch P3, P6 and Pc treatments had significant differences with each other. Moreover, results revealed that amount of sediment in Control, P3, P6 and Pc treatments had a significant differences and P3, P6 and Pc treatments had not produced any sediment and belonged to one group.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rainfall simulator
  • Split Split Plot Design
  • Arayez Plain
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