تأثیر مدیریت‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر شکل های آلی فسفر خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان

3 دانشیار علوم خاک گرگان

چکیده

تغییر در عملیات مدیریتی نظیر روش‌های حفظ بقایای گیاهی و خاک‌ورزی مختلف، می‌تواند پویایی فسفر در خاک را تغییر داده و زیست فراهمی فسفر را بیافزاید. کشاورزی حفاظتی با حفظ بقایای گیاهی در سطح خاک و کاهش اختلاط خاک بر چرخه و لایه‌بندی فسفر در خاک تأثیر می‌نهد به‌گونه ای که بیشترین غلظت فسفر در لایه‌های فوقانی خاک خواهد بود. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثر خاک‌ورزی‌های مختلف بر شکل‌ها و توزیع فسفر آلی خاک با استفاده از روش عصاره‌گیری دنباله‌ای بود. بدین منظور نمونه‌برداری از دو عمق 8-0 و 16-8 سانتی‌متری از چهار روش خاک‌ورزی مختلف (مرسوم، بستر برآمده، کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی) بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در 5 تکرار صورت گرفت. برای جزءبندی فسفر آلی از روش بوومن و کول (Bowman & Cole, 1978) تغییر یافته استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که تغییر خاک‌ورزی از مرسوم به خاک‌ورزی‌های حفاظتی (بستر برآمده، کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی) موجب افزایش معنی‌دار فسفر آلی در همه شکل‌ها (فسفر لبایل، فسفر نسبتا لبایل، فسفر غیرلبایل، فسفر باقی‌مانده) شد. همچنین میزان فسفر دانه گندم حدوداً 35 درصد در کم‌خاک‌ورزی و بی‌خاک‌ورزی نسبت به خاک‌ورزی مرسوم افزایش نشان داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه گندم (21%) در کم‌خاک‌ورزی نسبت به خاک‌ورزی مرسوم مشاهده شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که بهم‌خوردگی کم خاک در سیستم‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی مقدار و توزیع شکل‌های فسفر در خاک را تغییر داد و منجر به ایجاد یک شیب غلظتی شد که با عمق خاک کاهش یافت. برعکس در سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی سنتی و مرسوم، اختلاط بقایای گیاهی با لایه شخم خاک، سبب افزایش سرعت تجزیه مواد آلی و در نتیجه کاهش ذخیره شکل‌های لبایل و نسبتاً لبایل آلی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of Different Tillage Managements on Soil Organic Phosphorus Forms

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Mohammadi 1
  • Mojtaba Baranimotlagh 1
  • Mohammad Esmaeil Asadi 2
  • Seyed Alireza movahedi Naeini 3
  • Somayeh Sefidgar shahkolaie 1
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
2 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
چکیده [English]

Changes in management practices like different soil tillage and keeping crop residues can be alter phosphorus (P) dynamics and increased P bioavailability. Conservation agriculture (CA), which reduces soil disturbance and keeps crop residues on the soil surface, affects the cycle and stratification of soil P, resulting a high P concentration in the upper layers of the soil. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in organic P fractions in a soil under different tillage managements using a sequential extraction procedure. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with 5 replications. Tillage treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), Raised Bed system (RB), Minimum Tillage (MT) and No-Tillage (NT) systems. Soil samples were taken from the 0–8 and 8-16 centimeters depths at all four tillage treatments. Organic P pools were fractionated at each depth using modified Bowman and Cole (1978) procedure. The results showed that the change in soil tillage from CT to CA (Raised Bed Tillage (RB), Minimum Tillage (MT) and No-Tillage (NT)) significantly increased the amount of all organic P forms (labile P, moderately labile P, and non-labile, residual P). Also, the P concentration of wheat grain in MT and NT showed increasement about 35% rather than the CT. In addition, the wheat grain yield was the highest in the MT and increased about 21% rather than to CT. The results of this research showed that low soil disturbance under NT has changed the concentration and distribution of P in the soil, leading to the establishment a P concentration gradient that decreases with soil depth. Conversely, under CT systems incorporation of plant residues within the soil plough layer increases the organic matter decomposition rate and reduces the storage of labile and moderately labile organic P fractions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation Agriculture
  • Conventional Tillage
  • Phosphorus Forms
  • sequential extraction
  • Organic P
References

Amini A., Rajaei M., and Farsi Nejad K. 2014. Effects of different plant presidue under different tillage practices on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 6(16): 27-37.

Bahrpour V., Rohani V., Abbaspour-Fard M. H., Zarifneshat S. and Aghkhani M.H. 2016. The effects of conservation tillage and residual management on soil properties. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization, 3(2): 97-109. (In Persian)

Basamba T.A., Barrios E. Ame´zquita E., Rao, I. M., and Singh B.R. 2006. Tillage effects on maize yield in a colombian savanna oxisol: soil organic matter and P fractions. Soil and Tillage Research, 91: 131-142.

Benton Jones J., and Case V.W. 1990. Sampling, Handling and Analyzing Plant Tissue Samples, in: Westerman, R.L. (Ed.), Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, 3rd (Ed.), Book series No. 3. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WI., USA. pp. 389-428

Bowman R.S., and Cole C.V. 1978. An exploratory method for fractionation of organic phosphorus from grassland soils. Soil Science, 125: 95-101.

Bravo C., Torrent J., Giraldez J. V., and Ordonez, R. 2006. Long term effect of tillage on phosphorous forms and sorption in a vertisol of southern Spain. Europan Journal Agronomy, 25(3): 264-269.

Chen H., R. Hou Y. Gong H. Li M. F and Kuzyakov Y. 2009. Effects of 11 years of conservation tillage on toil organic matter fractions in wheat monoculture in loess plateau of china. Soil and Tillage Research, 106 (1): 85-94.

Eskandari I. and Feiziasl V. 2017. Influence of conservation tillage on some soil physical properties and crop yield in vetch-wheat rotation in dryland cold region. Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 7(2): 451-467. (In Persian)

Essington M.E., and Howard D.D. 2000. Phosphorus availability and speciation in long-term no till and disk-till soil. Soil Science, 165: 144-152.

Fink J. R., Indaa A. V., Bavarescoa J., Barrón V., Torrent J., and Bayer, C. 2016. Adsorption and desorption of phosphorus in subtropical soils as affected by management system and mineralogy. Soil and Tillage Research, 155: 62-68.

Huang G.B., Zhang R.Z., Li G.D., Li L.L., Chan K.Y., Heenan D.P., Chen W., Unkovich M.J., Robertson M.J., Cullis B.R., and Bellotti W.D. 2008. Productivity and sustainability of a spring wheat-field pea rotation in a semi-arid environment under conventional and conservation tillage systems. Field Crops Research, 107: 43-55.

Ivanoff D. B., Reddy K. R., and Robinson S. 1998. Chemical fractionation of organic phosphorus in selected histosols. Soil Science, 163: 36-45.

López-Garrido R., Madejón E., León-Camacho M., Girón I., Moreno F., and Murillo J.M. 2014. Reduced tillage as an alternative to no-tillage under Mediterranean conditions: a case study. Soil and Tillage Research, 140: 40-47.

Meidani J. and Karimi E. 2013. Effects of different tillage on soil physical properties and rainfed wheat yield in rotation with safflower. Agronomy Journal. 100: 48-59. (In Persian)

Mohammad W., Shah S. M., Shehzadi S., and Shah S. A. 2012. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed) of north-west Pakistan. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12 (4): 715-727.

O,Halloran I.P. 1993. Effect of tillage and fertilization on inorganic and organic soil phosphorus. Canadian. Journal of Soil Science, 73: 359-369.

Olsen S.R., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Phosphorus. In: Page A. L. et al. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd (Ed.), Argon. Mongr. 9. ASA and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp: 403-430.

Pavinato P.S., Merlin A., and Rosolem, C.A. 2009. Phosphorus Fractions in Brazilian Cerrado Soils as Affected by Tillage. Soil and Tillage Research, 105: 149-155.

Pisante M., and Stagnari F. 2007. Conservation Agriculture Italian Way - Principles, Technologies and Methods for Sustainable Production. Edagricole, Bologna, Italy Blue Agriculture, 317 p.

Redel Y.D., Rubio R., Rouanet J. L., Borie F. 2007. Phosphorus bioavailability affected by tillage and crop rotation on a chilean volcanic derived ultisol. Geoderma, 139: 388-396.

Rodrigues M., Pavinato P.S., Anthony Withers P.J., Bettoni Teles A.P., Bejarano Herrera W.F. 2016. Legacy phosphorus and no tillage agriculture in tropical oxisols of the Brazilian savanna. Science of the Total Environment, 542: 1050-1061.

Selles F., McConkey B.G., and Campbell C.A. 1999. Distribution and forms of P under cultivator- and zero-tillage for continuous- and fallow-wheat cropping systems in the semi-arid Canadian prairies. Soil and Tillage Research, 51: 47-59.

Sharpley A.N., and Smith S. J. 1985. Fractionation of inorganic and organic phosphorus in virgin and cultivated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49: 127-130.

Tiecher T. Rheinheimer dos Santos D. and Calegari A. 2012. Soil organic phosphorus forms under different soil management systems and winter crops, in a long-term experiment. Soil and Tillage Research, 124: 57-67.

Tiecher T., Gomes M. V., Ambrosini V. G., Magno Batista Amorim M. B., and Bayer C. 2018. Assessing linkage between soil phosphorus forms in contrasting tillage systems by path analysis. Soil and Tillage Research, 175: 276-280.

Wright A.L., Hons F.M and Matocha J.E. 2005. Tillage impacts on microbial biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics of corn and cotton rotaions. Applied Soil Ecology, 29: 85-92

Zamuner E.C., Picone L. I., and Echeverria H.E. 2008. Organic and inorganic phosphorus in mollisol soil under different tillage practices. Soil and Tillage Research, 99: 131-138.

Zhang Z.S, Cao C.G. Cai M.L., and LiC.F. 2013. Crop yield, P uptake and soil organic phosphorus fractions in response to short-term tillage and fertilization under a Rape -Rice rotation in central China. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 13 (4): 871-882

Zheng A., Simard R.R., Lafond J., and Parent L. E. 2001. Changes in phosphorus fractions of a humic gelysol as influenced by cropping system and nutrient sources. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81: 175-183.