مقایسه میزان رسوب در رواناب و زه‌آب در دو شیب و پوشش گیاهی متفاوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 هیآت علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

3 هیات علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

4 کارشناس آزمایشگاه خاکشناسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

نوع پوشش گیاهی و شیب زمین دو عامل تعیین‌کننده در شدت فرسایش آب و خاک می‌باشند. اگر چه پژوهش‌های متعددی در رابطه با تأثیر شیب و یا پوشش گیاهی بر فرسایش خاک انجام شده است، ولی مطالعه‌ای در رابطه با مقایسه اثر آنها بر میزان رسوب در رواناب و زه‌آب گزارش نشده است. هدف از این مطالعه، مقایسه میزان رسوب در رواناب و زه‌آب تحت تأثیر نوع کشت (گندم و یونجه) و شیب (5% و 20%) در یک خاک لوم‌شنی بود. آزمایش‌ها با استفاده از جعبه‌های خاک، با ابعاد 100 سانتی‌متر طول، 30 سانتی‌متر عرض و 25 سانتی‌متر ارتفاع که دارای یک خروجی برای زه‌آب و یک خروجی برای رواناب بود، و از خاک پر شده بودند در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که پوشش گیاهی متراکم‌تر (یونجه نسبت به گندم) به‌طور قابل‌توجهی میزان فرسایش خاک را کاهش می‌دهد. به‌طوری‌که در کشت یونجه، رسوب در زه‌آب و رواناب، کمتر از گندم مشاهده شد. همچنین نتایج حاصله نشان داد که تولید رسوب در رواناب و زه‌آب با شیب تغییر نشان می‌دهد؛ به‌طوری‌که تحت دو کشت گندم و یونجه، در رواناب رسوب بیش‌تری در شیب 20% مشاهده شد، در حالی‌که در زه‌آب، رسوب بیش‌تری در شیب 5% مشاهده گردید. وجود رسوب کمتر بعد از 60 دقیقه از شروع بارندگی در رواناب را می‌توان به تشکیل سله سطحی که سبب افزایش رواناب و کاهش رسوب می‌گردد، نسبت داد. اگر چه شیب و پوشش سطحی اثر معنی‌داری بر میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه نداشت، ولی مقدار آن تحت کشت یونجه بیش‌تر بود که می‌تواند به دلیل تأثیر کاهشی پوشش گیاهی بر فرسایش ‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of sediment content in runoff and drainage water under two different slopes and cultivation types

نویسنده [English]

  • Azadeh Safadoust 2
چکیده [English]

Land cover type and slope are two dominant parameters in soil and water erosion intensity. Although many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of slope or vegetation cover on soil erosion, but the there wasn’t any report regarding comparison of their effects in sediment generation in run off or derange. The objective of this study was to comparison of sediment in surface runoff and drainage water under influence of cultivation type (Alfalfa and Wheat) and slope (5% and 20%) in a sandy loam soil. The laboratory experiments were conducted using a soil box with dimensions of 100 cm long, 30 cm wide, and 25 cm deep, with one soil drainage outlet and one surface flow outlet, packed with soil in Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University. The result showed that intensive vegetation cover (alfalfa than wheat) can considerably reduce the loss of soil erosion. As under alfalfa cultivation less sediment was observed than wheat cultivation in both runoff and drainage. The current results showed that sediment generation in runoff and drainage vary with slope; as under both alfalfa and wheat cultivations larger sediment was observed in 20% slope in runoff, whereas in drainage the higher amount was observed in 5% slope. The observation of slighter sediment after 60 minute of rainfall in runoff could attribute to the generation of a surface crust that encouraged runoff and reduced soil erosion. Although there were no significantly effects of land cover and slope on mean weight diameter, it was larger under alfalfa as a result of erosion-reducing effectiveness of plant covers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vegetation cover
  • Surface crust
  • Sediment
  • Mean weight diameter
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