افزایش کارآیی آبیاری در اراضی شالیزاری با استفاده از کمپوست آزولا در شرایط کمبود آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، رشت، ایران

4 گروه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه پیام نور، صندوق پستی 3697-19395 ، تهران، ایران

چکیده

برای تعیین تاثیر کمپوست آزولا درکاهش تنش آب آبیاری بر رشد و عملکرد برنج، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال‌ 1390 در مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور اجراء شد. آزمایش به‌صورت گلدانی با 8 نوع رژیم آبیاری (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8) به‌عنوان فاکتور اول و 4 سطح کمپوست آزولا (B1= شاهد و بدون کمپوست، B2، B3 و B4 به ترتیب 5/2، 5 و 5/7 درصد وزنی خاک) به‌عنوان فاکتور دوم در سه تکرار اجراء شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری بر برخی صفات زراعی برنج مانند طول خوشه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه و عملکرد شلتوک و همچنین بر روی درصد نیتروژن و فسفر جذب شده در کاه و پتاسیم جذب شده در شلتوک برنج معنی‌دار می‌باشد اما تفاوت معنی‌داری بر خصوصیات دیگر مورد بررسی نداشت. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که اثر تیمارهای کمپوست آزولا بر برخی صفات زراعی برنج مانند طول خوشه، وزن خوشه و عملکرد دانه و همچنین بر روی شوری، اسیدیته، ماده آلی، نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم باقی‌مانده در خاک و بر پتاسیم جذب شده در شلتوک برنج معنی‌دار می‌باشد ولی تفاوت معنی‌داری بر خصوصیات دیگر مورد بررسی نداشت. نتایج کلی حاصل از اجرای پروژه نشان داد که تیمار A2B4 (آبیاری به اندازه اشباع خاک در طول دوره رشد و استفاده از 5/7 درصد کمپوست آزولا) یکی از مناسب‌ترین تیمارها می‌باشد. اعمال این مدیریت به‌ویژه در شرایط کمبود آب آبیاری دارای اهمیت زیادی بوده و کارایی مصرف آب آبیاری افزایش داده و به اندازه 37/19 درصد نسبت به آبیاری غرقاب در مصرف آب صرفه‌جویی می‌گردد. همچنین استفاده از کمپوست آزولا می‌تواند باعث افزایش میزان ماده آلی خاک شده و چون دارای برخی عناصر مورد نیاز گیاه می‌باشد، در طولانی مدت جایگزین کود‌های شیمیایی و در نتیجه ایجاد کشاورزی پایدار با حفظ محیط زیست خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Increasing irrigation efficiency in rice paddies using Azolla compost under water deficit conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sina Siavash Moghaddam 2
  • Seyyed Ali Noorhosseini 4
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4 Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O.Box, 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of composted Azolla on reducing soil moisture stress in water deficit condition and on growth and yield of rice in Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII) in 2011. The experiment was in a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) whis 8 irrigation regimes (A1, A2… and A8) as the first factor and use of different values of composted Azolla as second factor in 4 levels (B1= control, without compost, B2 = 2.5 %, B3 = 5% and B4 = 7.5% by weight of soil in pot), which was conducted in three replicates. The results showed significant effect by different irrigation regimes on panicle length, plant height, number of tillers and grain yield and also on nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium uptake in paddy and rice straw, but had no significant effect on the other properties. The effect of composted Azolla had significant effect on panicle length, panicle weight and grain yield, and on salinity, pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of the. The overall results of the project showed that treatment A2B4 (irrigation as soil saturation during the growing season with 2.5 % of Azolla compost) is one of the best treatment. Use of this management, especially in water deficit condition can increase water use efficiency by 19.37 percent and soil fertility too. Use of compost can be a good alternative instate of chemical fertilizers in Long-term rice cultivation, environmental health and sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azolla
  • Compost
  • Rice
  • Water deficit
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