تأثیرکوتاه مدت خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و گیاه پوششی کلزا بر برخی شاخص‌های زیستی کیفیت خاک و عملکرد آفتابگردان در منطقه دستجرد (همدان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان.

2 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

چکیده

مطالعه شاخص‌های زیستی کیفیت خاک اهمیت و کاربرد زیادی در ارزیابی پایداری اکولوژیک بوم نظام‌های زراعی دارند. این آزمایش، با هدف بررسی تأثیر چهار ساله‌ی روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی (بدون خاک‌ورزی، خاک‌ورزی حداقل و خاک‌ورزی مرسوم) در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور گیاه پوششی کلزا بر برخی شاخص‌های کیفیت خاک و عملکرد آفتابگردان در منطقه دستجرد همدان اجرا شد؛ آزمایش با آرایش فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تمامی ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی شامل کربن آلی، فراهمی فسفر، تنفس میکروبی، فعالیت آنزیم‌ فسفاتاز، فعالیت آنزیم پروتئاز و عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان به‌طور معنی‌داری (در سطح 1 درصد) تحت تأثیر تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی و گیاه پوششی قرار گرفتند، برهمکنش خاک‌ورزی و گیاه پوششی برای کربن آلی و آنزیم فسفاتاز در سطح 1 درصد معنی‌دار شد، اما برای دیگر شاخص-های مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار نبود. در تیمار خاک‌ورزی حداقل+گیاه پوششی میزان کربن آلی 5/2 و تنفس میکروبی 5/1 برابر نسبت به تیمار خاک‌ورزی مرسوم+بدون گیاه پوششی (شاهد) افزایش داشت؛ این افزایش برای سایر شاخص‌ها نیز مشاهده شد (فسفر فراهم 80 درصد، فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز 59 درصد، آنزیم پروتئاز 84 درصد و عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان 34 درصد). بعد از تیمار خاک‌ورزی حداقل+گیاه پوششی، در تیمار بدون خاک‌ورزی+گیاه پوششی بیش‌ترین مقدار شاخص‌های کیفیت خاک و عملکرد دانه اندازه‌گیری شد. اعمال تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی حداقل و کشت گیاه پوششی کلزا موجب افزایش ذخایر مواد آلی، فعالیت زیستی خاک و عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Short-term effects of conservation tillage and canola cover crop on selected biological indicators of soil quality and sunflower yield in Dastjerd, Hamedan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shilan Felegary 1
  • Javad Hamzei 3
  • Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani 2
1 former MSc student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University.
3 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University.
چکیده [English]

Assessing biological indicators of soil quality is crucial to evaluation of ecological sustainability of agroecosystem. This study aimed at assessing the effects of four years of different tillage practices (no tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage) with and without canola cover crop on selected biological indicators of soil quality and sunflower yield in Dastjerd, Hamedan; A randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement and three replications was conducted. All the measured properties, including soil organic carbon, available P, basal microbial respiration, protease and phosphatase activity and sunflower seed yield were significantly (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soil quality
  • Tillage
  • Cover crop
  • Enzyme activity
  • Microbial respiration
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