تأثیر شوری و تلقیح میکروبی بر عملکرد و شاخص‌های کارآیی فسفر در گیاه ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

در این مطالعه، به منظور بررسی تأثیر شوری بر عملکرد، شاخص‌های کارآیی فسفر و غلظت برخی از عناصر در ماده خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی گیاه ذرت (Zea mays L.) و نیز ارزیابی کارآیی ریزجانداران حل‌کننده فسفات و میکوریزها در تعدیل اثرات تنش شوری بر گیاه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در شرایط گلخانه‌ای اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول شامل شوری در 2 سطح (بدون شوری (شاهد) و با شوری 5/4 دسی زیمنس بر متر) و فاکتور دوم تلقیح میکروبی با 7 سطح مختلف شامل شاهد (بدون تلقیح)، تغذیه با فسفر محلول (KH2PO4)، تلقیح میکوریزی (M, Glomus)، تلقیح باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات ((PSB, Pseudomonas fluorescent ، تلقیح قارچ‌های حل‌کننده فسفات PSF, Aspergillus niger))، تلقیح تلفیقی میکوریز و باکتری (MB) و تلقیح تلفیقی میکوریز و قارچ (MF) بود. در پایان دوره رشد، برخی شاخص‌های رشد گیاه و غلظت عناصر غذایی در اندام هوایی گیاه اندازه‌گیری شده و شاخص‌های کارآیی فسفر محاسبه گردید. نتایج حاکی از تأثیر معنی‌دار سطوح شوری بر تمام صفات اندازه‌گیری شده غیر از غلظت روی بود. بیشترین مقادیر ارتفاع اندام هوایی (89/78 سانتی‌متر) و قطر ساقه (02/1سانتی‌متر) در تیمار فسفر محلول مشاهده گردید. هم‌چنین نتایج، افزایش معنی‌دار در مقدار فسفر، آهن، روی، مس، منگنز، ارتفاع اندام هوایی و قطر ساقه را در گیاهان تلقیح شده با میکوریز و باکتری و نیز در شرایط تلقیح توام میکوریز-ریزجانداران حل‌کننده فسفات در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد بدون تلقیح، نشان داد. تلقیح با تیمارهای میکوریز و باکتری، ارتفاع اندام هوایی را به ترتیب 90/1و 20/1 برابر نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند. هم‌چنین تیمارهای تلقیح قارچی و میکوریزی، مقدار روی اندام هوایی را به ترتیب 98/40 و 65/85 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد افزایش دادند. چنین استنباط می‌شود که تلقیح میکروبی از طریق تأثیر بر جذب عناصر غذایی، مقاومت گیاه ذرت را در شرایط وجود تنش شوری افزایش می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of salinity and microbial inoculation on the yield and phosphorous efficiency indicators of corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohsen barin 1
  • Mir Hassan Rasouli Sadaghiani 2
  • Sanaz Ashrafi Saeidlou 3
  • Fatemeh Shakouri 4
2 Prof., of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
3 PH.D. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
4 MSc. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

In this study, in order to assess the effect of salinity on yield, phosphorous efficiency indicators and some elements concentration in corn root and shoot dry weight, and also to evaluate phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi efficiency in adjusting salinity impacts on plant, an experiment carried out in a completely randomized design in greenhouse conditions. The first factor involves salinity (non-saline (NS) and salinity of 4.5 dS m-1 (S)) and the second factor was microbial inoculation including control (without inoculation), nutrition with soluble phosphorus (P), mycorrhizal inoculation (M), inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), phosphate solubilizing fungi inoculation (PSF), co-inoculation of mycorrhiza and bacteria (MB) and co-inoculation of mycorrhiza and fungi (MF). At the end of growing period, some plant growth indicators and nutrient concentrations in plant shoot were measured and phosphorous efficiency indicators were calculated. The results showed that salinity levels had a significant impact on all of measured properties except zinc. The highest amounts of shoot length (78.89 cm) and stem diameter (1.023 cm) were observed in soluble phosphorus treatment. Also, the results showed a significant increase in the amount of phosphorous, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, shoot length and stem diameter of plants that were inoculated with mycorrhiza and bacteria and in co-inoculation of AMF and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms condition, in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Bacteria and mycorrhizal treatments increased shoot length amount 1.90 and 1.20 times compared to control, respectively. Fungi and mycorrhiza treatments increased shoot zinc content 40.98 and 85.65 percent compared to control, respectively. It is inferred that microbial inoculation increase corn plants resistance in salinity condition by influencing nutrients uptake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • microbial inoculation
  • phosphorous efficiency
  • nutrients
  • Salinity
  • Corn
 

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