واکنش گروه‌های کرم‌های خاک سطحی به تغییرپذیری مشخصه‌های اکولوژیکی یک جنگل پهن‌برگ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

کرم‌های خاکی به عنوان مهم‌ترین مهندسین اکوسیستم خاک‌های جنگلی قلمداد می‌شوند. پژوهش حاضر جهت بررسی واکنش گروه‌های کرم‌های خاکی (اپی‌ژئیک، آنسئیک و اندوژئیک) در لایه سطحی خاک به تغییرپذیری مشخصه‌های اکولوژیکی (کربن لاشبرگ، نیتروژن لاشبرگ، نسبت C/N لاشبرگ، کربن خاک، نیتروژن خاک، نسبت C/N خاک، محتوی رطوبت و pH) پارک جنگلی نور صورت گرفت. جهت انجام تحقیق حاضر، چهار گونه توسکا قشلاقی، سفیدپلت، اوجا و انجیلی انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری لاشبرگ و خاک در زیر تاج درخت در میکروقطعه نمونه (30 × 30 و عمق 15 سانتی‌متری) انجام پذیرفت. همزمان با نمونه‌برداری، کرم‌های خاکی بصورت جداگانه، کامل و به روش دست‌چین کردن از خاک جدا شده و زیتوده هر یک در محیط آزمایشگاه اندازه‌گیری شد. مطابق با نتایج، خاک تحتانی گونه توسکا، بیش‌ترین فراوانی (3/0 تعداد در متر مربع) و زیتوده (سه میلی‌گرم در متر مربع) اپی‌ژئیک‌ها و بیش‌ترین فراوانی (4/1 تعداد در متر مربع) و زیتوده (14 میلی‌گرم در متر مربع) اندوژئیک‌ها را به خود اختصاص داده بود. در خاک تحتانی گونه انجیلی، کرم-های خاکی اپی‌ژوئیک و اندوژئیک مشاهده نشد. همچنین، کمترین حضور (5/0 تعداد در متر مربع) و زیتوده (5/0 میلی-گرم در متر مربع) آنسئیک‌ها در خاک تحتانی گونه انجیلی مشاهده شد. نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر تاٌثیر مثبت گونه درختی توسکا قشلاقی، بواسطه محتوی نیتروژن زیاد لاشبرگ، بر شاخص بیولوژیکی کیفیت خاک بوده که می‌تواند جهت احیای مناطق تخریب‌یافته سطوح شمالی کشور مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reaction of topsoil earthworms groups to variability of ecological characters in a broad-leaved forest

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faeze Sadat Tarighat 1
  • Yahya Kooch 2
1 Forestry, Guilan University
2 Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Earthworms are as the most important soil forest ecosystem engineers. Present research was considered to study the reaction of earthworm group's (epigeic, anecic and endogeic) in topsoil to variability of ecological characters (litter C, litter N, litter C/N, soil C, soil N, soil C/N, and pH and moisture) in Noor Forest Park. Litter and soil samples were taken, with microplots of 30×30×15 cm, under tree canopy of Alnus glotinusa, Ulmus glabra, Popolus caspica and Parrotia persica species. Earthworms were collected during soil sampling, washed in water and weighed. Biomass was defined as the weight of the worms after drying at the labratory. Results showed that the soil under Alnus glotinusa has high abundance and biomass of epigeic (0.3 n/m2 amd 3 g/m2 respectively) and endogeic (1.4 n/m2 and 14 mg/m2 respectively). Whereas any epigeic and endogeic were not found under Parrotia persica. The least density and biomass (0.5 n/m2 and 0.5 mg/m2 respectively) of anecic earhworms were recorded under Parrotia persica. The results of this research are indicating of positive role of Alnus glotinusa species, related to high litter N, on biological index of soil quality that can be considered to restore of degraded parts in the northern Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • litter
  • Soil
  • C/N
  • Moisture
  • pH
References

Bakhshipour R., Ramezanpour H., and Lashkarboluki E. 2012. Studying the effect of Pinus taeda and Populus sp. plantation on some forest soils properties (Case study: Fidareh of Lahidjan). Iranian Journal of Forest, 4: 321-332. (In Persian)

Bremner J. M., and Mulvaney C. S. 1982. Nitrogen-Total. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. Eds, Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. American Society of Agronomy Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 595-624.

Burton J., Chen C.R., Xu Z.H., and Ghadiri H. 2007. Soluble organic nitrogen pools in adjacent native and plantation forests of subtropical Australia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39: 2723-2734.

Capelle C.V., Schrader S., and Arpaia S. 2015. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. Science of the Total Environment, 548: 360–369.

Cardelus C.L., Mack M.C., Woods C., DeMarco J., and Treseder K.K. 2009. The influence of tree species on canopy soil nutrient status in a tropical lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. Plant and Soil, 318:47–61.

Chaudhuri P.S., Bhattacharjee S.D.A., Chattopadhyay, S., and Bhattacharya, D. 2013. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 34: 59-65.

Dechaine J., Ruan H., Leon Y.S., and Zou X. 2005. Correlation between earthworms and plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. Pedobiologia, 49: 601-607.

 Edwards C.A., and Bohlen P.J. 1996. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms, 3rd. Chapman and Hall, London, 426p.

Jafari Haghighi M. 2003. Soil analysis, sampling and important physical and chemical analysis method with emphasis on theory and application basics, Nedaye Zoha Publication, 240p. (In Persian)

Jafari M., and Sarmadian F. 2011. Fundamental of soil science and soil taxonomy. Tehran, University of Tehran Press, 788 p. (In Persian)

Kooch Y., Rostayee F., and Hosseini S.M. 2016. Effects of tree species on topsoil properties and nitrogen cycling in natural forest and tree plantations of northern Iran. Catena, 144: 65–73.

Kooch Y., Samadzadeh B. and Hosseini S. M. 2017. The effects of broad-leaved tree species on litter quality and soil properties in a plain forest stand. Catena. 150: 223-229.

Laossi K.R., Noguera D.C., and Barot S. 2010. Earthworm-mediated maternal effects on seed germination and seedling growth in three annual plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42:319-323.

Lubbers I.M., Groenigen K.J.V., Brussaard L., and Groenigen J.W.V. 2015. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity. Scientific Reports, 5: 1-11.

Ma Y., Dickinson N., and Wong M.H. 2003. Intraction between earthworms.trees.soil.nutrition and metal mobility in amended Pb/Zn mine tailings from Guangdong. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35: 1369-1379.

Mariappan V., Karthikairaj K., and Isaiarasu L. 2013. Relationship between earthworm abundance and soil quality of different cultivated lands in Rajapalayam, Tamilnadu. World Applied Sciences Journal, 27: 1278-1281.

Marvie Mohadjer M.R. 2011. Silviculture. Tehran, University of Tehran Press, 385p. (In Persian).

Moghimian N., and Kooch Y. 2013. The effect some of physiographic factors and soil physic-chemical features of Hornbeam forest ecosystems on earthworm's biomass. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 20: 1-22. (In Persian) 

Neirynck J., Mirtcheva S., Sioen G., and Lust N. 2000. Impact of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Fraxinus exceslsior L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. on earthworm biomass and physico – chemical properties of loamy topsoil. Forest Ecology and Management, 133: 275-286.

Nilsson M.C., Wardle D. A., and Dahlberg A. 1999. Effects of plant litter species composition and diversity on the Boreal forest plant-soil system. Oikos, 86: 16–26.

Palm J., Loes N., and Schröder B. 2013. Modelling distribution patterns of anecic, epigeic and endogeic earthworms at catchment-scale in agro-ecosystems. Pedobiologia, 56: 23– 31.

Rajapaksha N.S., Butt K.R., Vanguelova E.I., and Moffat A.J. 2013. Earthworm selection of Short Rotation Forestry leaf litter assessed through preference testing and direct observation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 67: 12–19.

Rashid M.I., Goede R.G.M., Corral Nuenz G.A., Brussaard L., and Lantinga E.A. 2014. Soil pH and earthworms affect herbage nitrogen recovery from solid cattle manure in production grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 68:1-8.

Sansoulet J., Cabidoche Y.M., Cattan P., Ruy S., and Simunek J. 2008. Spatially distributed water fluxes in an Andisol under banana plants: experiments and three-dimensional modeling. Vadose Zone Journal, 7: 819–829.

Sarlo M. 2006. Individual tree species effects on earthworm biomass in a tropical plantation in Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science, 42: 419-427.

Sayyad E., Hosseini S.M., Hosseini V., and Salehe Shooshtari M.H. 2012. Plantations in Dez River floodplain influence soil macrofauna differently. Journal of Water and Soil, 26: 700-707. (In Persian)

Sayyad E., Hosseini S.M., Hosseini V., and Salehe Shooshtari M.H. 2012. Soil macrofauna in relation to soil and leaf litter properties in tree plantations. Journal Forest Science, 58: 170-180.

Sayyad E., Hosseini S.M., Hosseini V., Jalili S.G., and Salehe Shooshtari M.H. 2010. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia salicina and Dalbergia sisso plantation on soil macrofauna.Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 17: 560-567. (In Persian)

Schwarz B., Dietrich C.H., Cesarz S., Scherer Lorenzen M., Auge H., Schulz E., and Eisenhauer N. 2015. Non-significant tree diversity but significant identity effects on earthworm communities in three tree diversity experiments. European Journal of Soil Biology, 67: 17-26.

Sigurdsson B.D. and Gudleifsson B.E. 2013.  Impact of afforestation on earthworm populations in Iceland. ICEL. Agricultural Science, 26: 21-36.

Singh A., Piyanka S., Kumari S., and Sinha M.P. 2012. Impact of different litters on growth and production of a megascolecid earthworm (Perionyx sansibaricus) in experimental condition. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 5381-5386.

Smith R.G., McSwine C.P., Grandy A.S., Suwanawaree P., Snider R.M., and Robertson G.P. 2008. Diversity and abundance of earthworms across agricultural land-use intensity gradient.  Soil and Tillage Research, 100: 83-88.

Yavitt J.B., Fahey T.J., Sherman R.E., and Groffman P.M. 2015. Lumbricid earthworm effects on incorporation of root and leaf litter into aggregates in a forest soil, New York State. Biogeochemistry, 125: 261–273.