برآورد هدر رفت خاک ناشی از برداشت محصول سیب‌زمینی در دشت قروه و دهگلان، استان کردستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

فرسایش خاک یکی از مخاطراتی است که به طور تدریجی با اثرات محلی و برون‌محلی خود، باعث افت کیفیت خاک، تخریب اراضی، آلودگی آب‌های سطحی، کاهش ظرفیت مخازن سدها و در نهایت تهدید امنیت غذایی بشر می‌شود. در مقایسه با انواع مختلف فرسایش، هدررفت خاک ناشی از محصولات کشاورزی کم‌تر مورد توجه محققان قرار گرفته است. بدین ترتیب هدف از این مطالعه برآورد هدررفت خاک ناشی از برداشت محصول سیب‌زمینی در دشت قروه و دهگلان، کردستان می‌باشد. به این منظور، تعداد بیست نمونه سیب‌زمینی با وزن 5 کیلوگرم از اراضی دیم و کشت آبی در منطقه مورد مطالعه برداشت شد. در آزمایشگاه پس از شست و شوی نمونه‌ها مخلوط آب و خاک از کاغذ صافی عبور داده شد و خاک باقیمانده روی کاعذ صافی خشک و مقدار هدررفت خاک تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد میزان هدررفت خاک نمونه‌ها حدود 4/13 الی 4/40 گرم بر کیلوگرم می‌باشد. نتایج تحلیل واریانس نشان داد که بین مقدار هدررفت خاک از کاربری با کشت دیم و کشت آبی در سطح 95 درصد تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از تحلیل خوشه‌ای نمایانگر ارتباط ضعیف بین نمونه‌های برداشت شده از کاربری‌های مختلف بود. میزان هدررفت خاک برآورد شده از 4/80490 هکتار در 10 سال گذشته برابر با 52/72374 تن بود که به طور میانگین 7237 تن در هر سال است. همچنین میانگین هدررفت خاک ناشی از برداشت سیب‌زمینی از 66/0 تا 14/1 تن بر هکتار بر محصول برداشت شده متغیر است. نتایج این مطالعه اثبات می‌نماید که هدررفت خاک در اثر برداشت محصولات می‌تواند از نظر کمی در ردیف هدررفت خاک در اثر فرآیند فرسایش آبی قلمداد گردد که لازم است مورد توجه محققان و برنامه‌ریزان عرصه کنترل فرسایش و حفاظت خاک قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of soil loss due to potato harvesting in Ghorveh-Dehgolan plain, Kurdestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kazem Nosrati
  • milad ostami
  • Mostafa Amini
university of shahid beheshti
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is one of the hazards with on-site and off-site effects that gradually cause decreasing soil quality, land degradation, surface water contaminations, reduction of dam’s reservoirs capacity and threating of human food security. The soil loss due to crop harvesting (SLCH) has been considered less comparing the soil erosion types by researches. The objective of this study is therefore to estimate the Potato soil loss due to crop harvesting in the Ghorveh-Dehgolan plain, Kurdestan province. In view of this, 20 samples of potato with weight of 5 kg were collected from dry land and irrigated cultivated lands in the study area. In the laboratory, after washing the samples, the suspensions were filtrated and the remained soils on filter paper were dried and the SLCH determined. The results showed that the SLCH ranged 13.4 to 40.4 g kg-1. The results of one-way ANOVA showed that there is significance difference between SLCH from dry land farming and irrigating cultivation with the confidence level of 95%. The results of cluster analysis also indicated the weak relationships between samples collected from both land use types. The soil loss due to potato harvesting from 80490.4 ha in ten last years was 72374.52 Mg with annual average of 7237 Mg yr-1. Also, the mean soil erosion due to potato harvesting ranged from 0.66 to 1.14 Mg ha-1 harvest-1. The results of this study demonstrated that the soil losses caused by crop harvesting can be of the same order of magnitude as soil losses caused by water erosion processes that should be considered by researchers and planners in soil erosion control and conservation fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil Erosion
  • Food security
  • Soil erosion due to agricultural crop harvesting
  • Dry-land (rainfed) and irrigated cultivated lands
  • Statistical analysis

References

Abbaszadeh Afshar F., Ayoubi Sh., and Jalalian, A. 2010. Soil redistribution rate and its relationship with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen using 137Cs technique in a cultivated complex hillslope in western Iran. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 101(8): 606-614.

Abedi A., and Ghazavi M.A. 2005. Investigation of economy of erosion of soil by cultivation action (case study: plow device of Iran). 6th Conference of Agriculture of Iran. (In Persian).

Ahmadi H. 2005. Applied geomorphology. University of Tehran press, Tehran, 462p.

Al-Sheikh A., Delgado J.A., Barbarick K., Sparks R., Dillon M., Qian Y., and Cardon, G. 2005. Effects of potato–grain rotations on soil erosion, carbon dynamics and properties of rangeland sandy soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 81(2): 227-238.

Bandara D.G.V.L., and Thiruchelvam S. 2010. Factors affecting the choice of soil conservation practices adopted by potato farmers in Nuwara Eliya Distrct, SriLanka. Tropical agricultural Research and Extension, 11: 1-6.

Belotserkovsky Y., and Larionov A. 1988. Removal of soil by harvest of potatoes and root crops (in Russian). Bulletin of Moscow University (Geography), 4: 49–54.

Biesmans M. 2002. Soil loss by harvesting sugar beet and potatoes: spatial variation of the field and regional level. MSc Thesis, Department of Geography, K.U.Leuven, Leuven, pp.28-37.

Blanco H., and Lal R. 2008. Principles of Soil Conservation and Management. Springer, Netherlands, 135p.

Campbell D.J. 1976. The occurrence and prediction of clods in potato ridges in relation to soil physical properties. Journal of Soil Sciences, 27:1–9.

Campbell D.J. 1982. A review of the clod problem in potato production. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 27: 373–395.

Golestanifard A.R., Mir seyed Hossaini H., Arian A., Abbaszadeh Dehji P., and Tafvizi M. 2015. Changes of chemical forms of Zinc in the rhizosphere of some turnip and radish cultivars. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 4(4): 193-214.

Isabirye M., Ruysschaert G., Poesen J., Magunda M.K., and Deckers J. 2007. Soil losses due to cassava and sweet potato harvesting: A case study from low input traditional agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research, 92(1): 96-103.

Jalalian A., Ghahsareh A.M., and Karimzadeh H.R. 1996. Soil erosion estimates for some watersheds in Iran. Paper presented at the International Conference on Land Degradation. (In Persian)

Li Y., Ruysschaert G., Poesen J., Zhang Q.W., Bai L.Y., Li L., and Sun L.F. 2006. Soil losses due to potato and sugar beet harvesting in NE China. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31 (8): 1003–1016.

Mwango S.B., Msanya B.M., Mtakwa P.W., Kimaro D.N., Deckers S., Poesen J., Lilanga S and Sanga, R. 2013. Soil loss due to crop harvesting in Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania: The case of carrot, onion and round potato, Joint Proceedings of the 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and the 6th African Soil Science Society, pp. 1- 8.

Nosrati K. 2014. Applied Researches in the Scientific Research, Jahad daneshgahi Press, Tehran, 192p.

Patterson D.E., and Sharp J.R. 1969. A ridge analyzer and leavings collector for assessing potato harvester performance. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 14 (4): 365–368.

Poesen J.W.A., Verstraeten G., Soenens R., and Seynaeve L. 2001. Soil losses due to harvesting of chicory roots and sugar beet: an underrated geomorphic process? Catena, 43: 35–47.

Ruysschaert G., Poesen J., Verstraeten G., and Govers G. 2006. Soil losses due to mechanized potato harvesting. Soil and Tillage Research, 86(1): 52-72.

Ruysschaert G., Poesen J., Verstraeten G., and Govers G. 2007. Soil loss due to harvesting of various crop types in contrasting agro-ecological environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 120(2): 153-165.

Sangin abadi E. 2016. The effect of physical development of city on the erosion of soil rate (case study: Ghorveh district, Kurdestan province). M.Sc Thesis of Geomorphology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahid Beheshti. (In Persian).

Setiyo Y., Gunadnya I.B.P., Gunam I.B.W., Permana I.D. G.M., Susrusa, I.K.B., and Triani I.L. 2016. Improving physical and chemical soil characteristic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L) Cultivation by Implementation of Leisa System. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 9: 525-531.

Soenens R. 1997. Blood loss during the harvesting of root crops. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Geography, K.U.Leuven, Leuven:  pp. 16-26.

Wang Y., Zhang J.H., Zhang, Z.H., and Jia L.Z. 2016. Impact of tillage erosion on water erosion in a hilly landscape. Science of the Total Environment, 551: 522-532.

Xing Z., Chow L., Rees H.W., Meng F., Monteith J., and Stevens L. 2011. A comparison of effects of one-pass and conventional potato hilling on water runoff and soil erosion under simulated rainfall. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 91(2): 279-290.