بررسی اثرات بارندگی پیشین بر فرسایش پاشمانی در خاک مارنی با استفاده از شبیه‌ساز باران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

فرسایش پاشمانی از اشکال اصلی و مهم فرسایش آبی است. پاشمان ذرات خاک می‌تواند تحت تأثیر عوامل مختلف از جمله باران پیشین قرار بگیرد. تاکنون پژوهشی در زمینه علل تأثیر باران پیشین بر مقدار فرسایش پاشمانی در باران بعدی انجام نگرفته است. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی اثر باران پیشین بر پاشمان ذرات در خاک مارنی انجام گرفت. برای این منظور خاک‌دانه‌های با قطر 6 تا 8 میلی‌متری از یک خاک مارنی تحت آیش در غرب زنجان در سال 1395 جمع‌آوری شد. خاک‌دانه‌ها در 24 جعبه پلاستیکی به ابعاد 40 ×30 سانتی‌متر و عمق 10 سانتی‌متر برای بررسی اثر هشت تداوم باران در سه تکرار ریخته شدند. باران شبیه‌سازی شده با تداوم صفر، 7، 14، 21، 28، 35، 42 و 49 دقیقه به نمونه‌های خاک اعمال گردید. تخریب خاکدانه و محتوای رطوبتی خاک در نمونه‌های خاک پس از یک روز اندازه‌گیری شدند. پس از یک روز، جعبه‌های خاک تحت باران یکسان با شدت ثابت 40 میلی‌متر بر ساعت به مدت 15 دقیقه قرار گرفتند. فرسایش پاشمانی با اندازه‌گیری جرم ذرات پاشمان یافته در واحد سطح جعبه به دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج، تداوم باران پیشین اثری معنی‌دار بر تخریب خاک‌دانه‌ها و افزایش محتوای رطوبتی خاک داشت. بیش‌ترین شدت تخریب خاک‌دانه (72/21 درصد) و بالاترین محتوای رطوبتی خاک (08/29 درصد) در طولانی‌ترین تداوم باران (49 دقیقه) حاصل شد. میزان فرسایش پاشمانی در رخ‌داد باران بعدی تحت تأثیر دو متغیر تخریب خاک‌دانه (05/0>P) و محتوای رطوبتی خاک (01/0>P) ناشی از باران پیشین قرار گرفتند. تجزیه رگرسیونی چندگانه خطی نشان داد که از بین این دو متغیر، رطوبت پیشین خاک مهم‌ترین عامل تعیین‌کننده تغییرات فرسایش پاشمانی در رخ‌داد باران بعدی می‌باشد (01/0>P و 83/0=R2). مقدار فرسایش پاشمانی در هر رخ‌داد باران را می‌توان با اطمینان با استفاده از تعیین رطوبت پیشین خاک برآورد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effects of antecedent rainfall on splash erosion in a Marl soil using rainfall simulator

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Vaezi 1
  • Shokouh Karimi 2
  • Majid Foroumadi 3
1 Associate Professor of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 Former M.Sc. Student of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
3 Ph.D. Student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Splash erosion is one of the most important kinds of water erosion. Splash of soil particles may affected by some factors especially antecedent rainfall event. Up to now, there isn’t any study on the effects of antecedent rainfall on splash erosion in the next rainfall. This study was conducted to investigate effect of the antecedent rainfall on the particles splash in a marl soil. Toward this, aggregates with a diameter of 6-8mm were taken of a marl soils under fallow condition in 2016. Aggregate were packed in 24 boxes with 30cm× 40cm dimensions and 30cm depth to investigate effect of eight rainfall durations levels at three replications. Simulated rainfall was applied to soil samples with eight durations (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 min). Aggregate breakdown and soil water content were determined in the soil samples after one day. After one day, soil boxes were placed under the same rainfall with a constant intensity of 40 mm h-1 for 15 min. Based on results, duration of antecedent rainfall significantly affected on the aggregate breakdown and increasing soil water content. The longest rainfall duration (49 min) appeared the highest aggregate breakdown (21.72%) as well as soil moisture content (29.08%).The amount of splash erosion in the next rain event were significantly influenced by the two soil variables changed by the antecedent rainfall i.e. aggregate breakdown (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Particles splash
  • Aggregate breakdown
  • Rainfall duration
  • Soil water content
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