تأثیر ریزجانداران حل‌کننده فسفات و قارچ‌های میکوریز بر ویژگی‌های رشدی گیاه ذرت (Zea mays L.) در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

استفاده از ریزجانداران در خاک‌های متأثر از تنش می‌تواند این امر را در گیاهان کاهش دهد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر ریزجانداران حل‌کننده فسفات ((PSB: Pseudomonas fluorescens, PSF: Aspergillus niger، قارچ‌های میکوریز (M: Funneliformis mosseae (G. mosseae)، (G. intraradices) Rhizophagus irregularis، Rhizophagus fasciculatus (G. fasciculatum))، و اثرات متقابل آن‌ها بر بهبود جذب عناصر غذایی تحت شرایط شوری، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در شرایط گلخانه‌ای به مدت 70 روز‌ اجرا گردید. در پایان دوره رشد، برخی شاخص‌های رشد گیاه و غلظت عناصر غذایی در اندام هوایی گیاه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج حاکی از تأثیر معنا‌دار سطوح شوری بر جذب فسفر و پتاسیم، سدیم، کلر و ارتفاع اندام هوایی بود. تجمع پرولین در برگ (96/0 میکرو‌مول بر گرم برگ) نیز از دیگر تأثیرات شوری بود. در بین تیمار‌های میکروبی، تیمار میکوریزی بالاترین مقادیر پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده را به خود اختصاص داد. به‌طوری‌که بیشترین مقادیر شاخص‌های رشد اندازه‌گیری شده از جمله ارتفاع اندام هوایی (89/78 سانتی‌متر)، وزن خشک بخش هوایی (77/15 گرم در گلدان) و وزن خشک ریشه (47/8 گرم در گلدان) در تیمار میکوریزی مشاهده گردید. مقادیر نیتروژن و پتاسیم برگ‌ها در شرایط تلقیح میکروبی افزایش یافت لیکن سدیم و کلر اندام هوایی در این شرایط کاهش معنا-داری داشتند. تیمارهای تلقیح قارچی و میکوریزی، مقدار پرولین برگ را به ترتیب 46/15 و 85/15 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد افزایش دادند. چنین استنباط می‌شود که تلقیح میکوریزی در کاهش اثرات تنش شوری در گیاه ذرت نقش بارزتری نسبت به سایر ریزجانداران دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Phosphate-Solubilizing Microorganisms and Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Growth Parameters of Corn (Zea mays L.) under Salinity Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mir Hassan Rasouli Sadaghiani 1
  • mohsen barin 2
  • Fatemeh Shakouri 3
  • Sanaz Ashrafi Saeidlou 4
1 Prof., of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
3 MSc. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
4 PH.D. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Using of microorganisms in stress affected soils can alleviate the condition in plants. In order to assess the effects of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSB: Pseudomonas fluorescens, PSF: Aspergillus niger) and mycorrhizal fungies (M: Funneliformis mosseae (G. mosseae),Rhizophagus irregularis (G. intraradices), Rhizophagus fasciculatus (G. fasciculatum)) and their interactions on improving nutrient uptake under salinity stress condition, an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design under greenhouse conditions. Some plant growth indicators and nutrient concentrations in plant shoot were measured at the end of growing period (70 days). The results showed the significant influence of salinity levels on phosphorous uptake, potassium, sodium, and chlorine concentrations, and shoot length. Proline accumulation in leaves (0.96 µmol g-1) was resulted with increasing of salinity levels. Among all microbial treatments, the maximum values of the parameters were resulted with mycorrhiza treatment, including shoot length (78.89 cm), shoot dry weight (15.77 g pot-1) and root dry weight (8.47 g pot-1). Unlike shoot sodium and chlorine concentrations, leaves nitrogen and potassium contents increased in microbial inoculation condition. Leaf proline was increased by 14.46% and 15.85% with fungi and mycorrhizal treatments compared to control, respectively. It is inferred that inoculation of AMF drastically decreased salinity effects in compared to other phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in corn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms
  • Phosphorous
  • Salinity
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