کاربرد روش‌های آماری چندمتغیره در ارزیابی شاخص‌های کیفیت خاک در منطقه نیمه‌خشک لردگان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

کیفیت خاک تحت تاثیر نوع کاربری و مدیریت زمین است. ارزیابی وضعیت کیفی خاک، راهنمای مناسبی برای اتخاذ روش-های مدیریت پایدار و پیش‌گیری از تخریب این ماده حیاتی می‌باشد. هدف این پژوهش تبیین تغییرات ویژگی‌های خاک در کاربری‌های مختلف و تعیین مهم‌ترین شاخص‌های ارزیابی کیفیت خاک بود. بدین منظور در مجموع 50 نمونه خاک از چهار کاربری جنگل، مرتع، دیم‌زار و کشت آبی از حوضه آبخیز لردگان جمع‌آوری شد. سپس ویژگی‌های خاک شامل جرم مخصوص ظاهری، اجزای بافت، کربنات کلسیم معادل، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، pH، هدایت الکتریکی، کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، نسبت کربن به نیتروژن، تنفس پایه میکروبی و میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه‌ها اندازه‌گیری شدند. همچنین میانگین دمای ماهانه و بارش سالیانه و نیز ارتفاع و شیب نقاط نمونه‌برداری تعیین گردید. نتایج تجزیه به مولفه‌های اصلی نشان داد که شاخص‌های کربن آلی، درصد شن، بارندگی سالیانه و ارتفاع، مهم‌ترین عوامل ایجاد کننده تغییرات در خاک‌های منطقه بوده است. این تحلیل توانست با ایجاد 5 مولفه اصلی، 81 درصد از تغییرات ویژگی‌های خاک‌های منطقه را به خوبی تبیین نماید. همچنین تحلیل تشخیص به خوبی توانست انواع کاربری‌ها را با استفاده از مجموعه‌ای از ویژگی‌های منتخب، از یکدیگر متمایز نماید. مقدار طبقه‌بندی صحیح در این تحلیل 94 درصد بود. نتایج این پژوهش بر قابلیت کاربرد روش‌های آماری چندمتغیره در بررسی کیفیت خاک‌ها تاکید دارد. بررسی جداگانه هر یک از شاخص‌های منتخب، دلالت بر کیفیت خوب خاک‌های جنگلی نسبت به سایر کاربری‌ها داشت و دیم‌زارها، وضعیت کیفی نامناسبی داشتند. بنابراین مدیریت پایدار منطقه، مستلزم پیشگیری از تغییر کاربری اراضی و احیای اراضی تخریب‌شده به منظور ارتقای کیفیت خاک است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of multivariate statistical methods for evaluating soil quality indices in Lordegan semiarid region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Alidoust
  • Majid Afyuni
  • Mohammad Ali Hajabbasi
  • Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi
Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil quality is affected by the type of land use and management. Evaluation of soil quality indices is a suitable guide for adopting sustainable management practices and preventing soil degradation. The goals of this research were to explain soil variations and to determine the most important soil quality assessment indices. Therefore, totally 50 soil samples were collected from four land uses including forest, pasture, rain fed and irrigated farmlands in Lordegan watershed. Then soil characteristics consisted of soil bulk density, soil texture components, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio, microbial basal respiration and mean weight diameter of aggregates were measured. Also, average monthly temperature, annual precipitation, elevation and slope of sampling points were determined. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that organic carbon, sand content, annual precipitation and elevation were the most important factors causing soil variations in the area. This method could explain 81% of soil variations in the region by creating 5 principal components. Furthermore, various kind of land uses were distinguished successfully according to a set of selected soil attributes using Discriminant Analysis. The percentage of correct classification in this analysis was 94%. The results of this study emphasize on the applicability of multivariate statistical methods in the assessment of soil quality. The individual examination for each of selected indices indicated the high quality of forest soils compared to the other land uses. However, rain fed farmlands had a poor quality situation. Therefore, achieving sustainable management in the area requires the prevention of land use change and the restoration of degraded lands for improving soil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use
  • Soil organic carbon
  • principal component analysis
  • Discriminant analysis
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