اثر تغییر کاربری اراضی بر شکل‌های شیمیایی پتاسیم و قابلیت استفاده برخی عناصر غذایی خاک در منطقه داراب، استان فارس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشکده کشاورزی داراب

چکیده

تغییر کاربری اراضی جنگل و مرتع به باغات گل محمدی می‌تواند بر بسیاری از ویژگی‌های خاک و حاصلخیزی آن اثر بگذارد. تعداد 36 نمونه خاک سطحی از کاربری‌های مختلف جنگل، مرتع و کشاورزی (باغ دیم گل‌محمدی) در منطقه مروارید (داراب، استان فارس) برداشت شد تا تأثیر تغییر کاربری بر ویژگی‌های خاک و حاصلخیزی آن بررسی شود. ویژگی‌های مختلف خاک، قابلیت استفاده عناصر پرمصرف و کم‌مصرف و غلظت شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار ماده آلی، پ‌هاش و ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی در خاک‌های باغ به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر از خاک جنگل و مرتع بود. غلظت نیتروژن در خاک باغ به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر از کاربری‌های دیگر بود، اما غلظت فسفر در آن به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از خاک جنگل و مرتع (39 در مقابل به‌ترتیب 22 و 24 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود. قابلیت استفاده منگنز، روی و مس در خاک باغ بیشتر از خاک جنگل و مرتع بود. پتاسیم تبادلی در خاک جنگل (749 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) و پتاسیم غیرتبادلی در خاک باغ (1344 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از سایر کاربری‌ها بود. به‌طور کلی، کشاورزان با افزودن کودهای شیمیایی، زیر و رو کردن محدود خاک و برداشت مقداری از بخش‌های هوایی گیاه سبب تغییر در ویژگی‌های خاک و حاصلخیزی آن می‌شوند. تغییرات در ویژگی‌های خاک و قابلیت استفاده عناصر غذایی باید در مدیریت اراضی کشاورزی منطقه مد نظر قرار گرفته و نتایج این تحقیق مانند کاهش غلظت برخی عناصر غذایی پرمصرف و ماده آلی در نتیجه تغییر کاربری اراضی جنگل و مرتع به باغ می‌تواند جهت پیش‌بینی پیامدهای حاصل از تغییر کاربری در منطقه مورد مطالعه و مناطق مشابه مفید باشد. توصیه می‌شود جهت حفظ توازن عناصر غذایی در باغات مصرف کودهای فسفر با دقت بیشتری انجام‌شده و کمبود مواد آلی و عناصر پرمصرف مانند نیتروژن و پتاسیم نیز با کاربرد مناسب کودهای آلی و شیمیایی جبران گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Land Use Change on Potassium Chemical Fractions and Availability of Some Soil Nutrients in Darab Region, Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamidreza boostani 1
  • null null 2
  • alireza mahmoodi 1
1 college of agriculture and natural resources of darab, shiraz university
چکیده [English]

Land use change from forest and pasture to Rosa damascena Mill orchard can affect many soil properties and fertility. Thirty-six surface soil samples from different land uses including forest, pasture and Rosa damascena Mill orchard were collected from Morvarid region (Darab, Fars province) to evaluate the effect of land use change on soil properties and fertility. Different soil properties, macro- and micronutrients availability and soil potassium forms were determined. Results showed that the content of organic matter, soil pH and cation exchange capacity in the orchard soil were significantly lower than those in the forest and pasture soils. The nitrogen content in the orchard soil was significantly lower than that in the other land uses, however the content of available P in the orchard soil was significantly higher than that in the forest and pasture soils (39 vs. 22 and 24 mg kg-1, respectively). The availability of manganese, zinc and copper in the orchard soil was significantly higher than those in the forest and pasture soils. The contents of exchangeable K in the forest soil (749 mg kg-1) and non- exchangeable K in the orchard soil (1344 mg kg-1) were significantly higher than those in the other land uses. Generally, farmers may change the soil properties and fertility with addition of chemical fertilizers, disturbing the soil and harvesting some aerial parts of plants. Changes in soil properties and nutrients availability must be considered in agricultural land management and the results of this research, for example the decrease in content of some macronutrients and organic matter due to the land use change from forest and rangeland to orchard, can be useful to predict the consequences of land use change in the studied region and other similar regions. It is recommended that in order to maintenance of nutrients balance in orchards, P fertilizers application should be done with more consideration and the decrease in the contents of organic matter and such macronutrients as N and K should be recompensed with organic and inorganic fertilizers application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Organic matter
  • Pasture
  • Rosa damascena Mill orchard
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