تاثیر کاربرد بقایای گیاهی در بهبود شاخصهای شیمیایی خاکهای آهکی، سدیمی و شور-سدیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، مراغه، ایران

4 استاد، گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

یکی از راهکارهای صحیح و عملی بهبود خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمایی خاک‌های آهکی، شور و سدیمی مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک استفاده از بقایای گیاهی محصولات کشاورزی است. به منظور بررسی تأثیر بقایای گیاهی بر بهبود خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک‌های آهکی، سدیمی و شور- سدیمی، آزمایش انکوباسیون (گرماگذاری) به صورت فاکتوریل در پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی (CRD)، شامل فاکتور نوع خاک (آهکی، سدیمی و شور- سدیمی) و بقایای گیاهی (ذرت، آفتابگردان، گندم، شبدر و ماشک) به همراه تیمار شاهد (خاک بدون بقایای گیاهی) در سه تکرار انجام شد. بقایای گیاهی به میزان دو درصد به خاک‌ها اضافه و تیمارهای آماده شده به مدت 13 هفته در دمای 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد و با رطوبت 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی گرماگذاری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که EC، نیتروژن کل، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، پتاسیم قابل جذب، آهن، روی، مس و منگنز قابل استفاده در تیمارهای بقایای گیاهی نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد افزایش معنی‌داری (در سطح احتمال 1 درصد) داشت. همچنین افزودن بقایای گیاهی موجب کاهش معنی‌دار pH و درصد آهک خاک‌ها (در سطح احتمال 1 درصد) شد. فسفر قابل استفاده در خاک‌های تیمارشده با بقایای ماشک، شبدر و آفتابگردان به ترتیب 39، 35 و 18 درصد افزایش یافت، در حالی که در خاک‌های تیمارشده با بقایای ذرت و گندم به ترتیب به میزان 19 و 25 درصد کاهش یافت. کاربرد بقایای گیاهی، کربن آلی و فعالیت آنزیم اوره‌آز را نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد به ترتیب تا 27 و 134 درصد افزایش داد. با کاربرد بقایای گیاهی، درصد سدیم تبادلی خاک‌های مورد مطالعه تا 19 درصد کاهش یافت. در کل، کاربرد بقایای گیاهی باعث بهبود خصوصیات شیمیایی مطالعه شده در خاک‌های آهکی، سدیمی و شور- سدیمی و افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی شد. همچنین شدت تاثیر بقایای گیاهی بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک‌های مورد مطالعه به کیفیت بیوشیمیایی و ترکیب شیمیایی بقایای گیاهی بستگی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Application of Plant Residues on Improvement of Chemical Properties of Calcareous, Sodic and Saline-Sodic Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Abdollahi garekand 1
  • Ebrahim sepehr 2
  • Vali Feiziasl 3
  • Mir Hassan Rasouli sadaghiani 2
  • Abbas Samadi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Prof. of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. Iran.
3 Assistant Prof. of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, I.R. Iran.
4 Prof. of Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Plant residues"
  • "chemical properties"
  • "Sodic and saline-sodic soil"
  • "Urease enzyme"
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