تغییرپذیری توزیع اندازه ذرات خاک در دامنه‌های شمالی و جنوبی منطقه نیمه‌خشک غرب زنجان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 زنجان-فرسایش خاک

3 دانشجو

چکیده

فرسایش خاک به‌وسیله آب یکی از مهم‌ترین پدیده‌های تخریب خاک در سطح زمین می‌باشد. جهت و درجه شیب از عوامل کنترل‌کننده حرکت آب و ذرات بر روی دامنه‌ها می‌باشند و سهم ویژه‌ای در ویژگی‌های مختلف خاک دارند. در حالت توسعه‌یافته رابطه عمومی میزان تولید فرسایش سطحی و هدررفت خاک به‌صورت پیوسته وابسته به درجه و طول شیب است. با افزایش درجه و طول شیب، تخلیه و شدت جریان افزایش می‌یابد و به همین میزان سرعت جداسازی و انتقال ذرات افزایش می‌یابد. این مطالعه به‌منظور بررسی اثر درجه و جهت شیب بر ویژگی‌های خاک در دامنه‌هایی با شیب کوتاه با پوشش گیاهی ضعیف در منطقه نیمه‌خشک غرب زنجان انجام شد. دامنه شمالی و جنوبی پنج فلات با درصد شیب متفاوت (10-9، 16-13، 22-17، 29-31 و 37-33 درصد) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نمونه‌های خاک در شیب‌ها از دو عمق (صفر تا 5 و 5 تا 15 سانتی‌متر) در چهار موقعیت با فاصله دو متری در طول شیب در دو تکرار تهیه شدند. در کل 160 نمونه خاک برای انجام آزمایش‌های توزیع اندازه ذرات، ماده آلی و آهک برداشته شد. نتایج نشان داد، فرسایش سطحی به شدت تحت تأثیر درجه و جهت شیب زمین قرار دارد. در موقعیت دو متری از رأس شیب، بیش‌ترین مقدار فرسایش ذرات ریز وجود داشت اما در موقعیت انتهایی شیب، فراوانی نسبی ذرات ریز افزایش یافت. مقدار فرسایش سطحی در دامنه‌های جنوبی به‌طور متوسط حدود 23 درصد بیش‌تر از دامنه‌های شمالی بود. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش درصد شیب اثر افزایشی بر مقدار شن و اثر کاهشی معنی‌دار بر مقدار رس (05/0P< و 43/0=R2) داشت

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Variability of Particle Size Distribution in North and South Hillslopes in A Semi-Arid Region in West of Zanjan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Foroumadi 1
  • alireza vaezi 2
  • Zahra Bayat 3
  • Ali shahbaee kutenaee 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 zanjan university
3 student
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion by water is one of the most important destructive factors on the earth's surface. The slope and aspect are the factors controlling the movement of water and sediments on the surface of the slopes and have a special contribution in different soil characteristics. In general, the public relations of surface erosion and soil loss are continuous, depending on the degree and length of the slope. As the degree and length of the slope increases, the discharge and flow rate increases, and the rate of separation and transfer of particles increases as well. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of slope and aspect on soil characteristics in slopes with weak vegetation cover in Western Zanjan semi-arid region, northwest Iran. Five plateaus were surveyed on both the northern and the southern slopes with different slope percentages (9-10, 13-17, 16-22, 29-31 and 33-37 percent). Soil samples were taken from two depths (0 to 5 and 5 to 15 cm) at four positions with a distance of two meters along the slope during two replications. Finally, 160 soil samples were considered for determination of particle size distribution, organic matter and lime size distribution. The results of this study showed that the surface erosion of the studied area was strongly affected by slope and aspect of the land. In the two-meter position from the top of the slope, there was the highest degree of fine particle erosion but at the bottom of the slope, the relative frequency of fine particles was increased. The surface erosion rate in the southern slopes was on average 23% higher than that of the northern slopes. Also, the results showed that increasing the slope had an incremental effect on the amount of sand and a significant reduction effect on clay content (P < 0.05, R2 = 0.43).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Surface flow
  • Slope gradient
  • Surface erosion
  • Plateau
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