قابلیت دسترسی زیستی فلزات سنگین خاک با کاربرد زغال زیستی و باکتری‌ ریزوسفری در فرآیند گیاه‌پالایی بید سفید (Salix alba L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه جنگداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 گروه علوم محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

زغال زیستی یک افزودنی‌ پرکاربرد در بهبود کارایی گیاه‌پالایی از طریق افزایش رشد گیاه بوده که اثرگذاری آن به‌صورت جداگانه و یا در ترکیب با باکتری‌های ریزوسفری در کاهش قابلیت دسترسی زیستی فلزات سنگین خاک یک مزیت مهم به­شمار می­آید. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی کاربرد جداگانه و ترکیبی زغال زیستی (تولید شده از ضایعات چوب جنگلی ممرز، در سه سطح صفر، 5/2 و 5 درصد وزن خاک) و باکتریPseudomonas fluorescens  روی ویژگی‌های رویشی نهال‌ گلدانی بید سفید (Salix alba L.) کاشته شده در خاک آلوده به فلزات سنگین (سرب، مس و کادمیوم)، و هم‌چنین شاخص‌های قابلیت دسترسی زیستی، کارایی حذف فلزات، فاکتور انباشت (تغلیظ) زیستی و فاکتور انتقال فلزات در شرایط گلخانه‌ و بازه زمانی 160 روزه برنامه‌ریزی شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌تر مؤلفه‌های رویشی نهال‌ تحت تأثیر کاربرد جداگانه و نیز ترکیب باکتری-زغال زیستی معنی‌دار بود. تیمار ترکیبی باکتری-زغال زیستی (سطح پنج درصد) موجب افزایش 59، 36، 142 و 85 درصدی به‌ترتیب، در وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، ریشه و کل نهال‌ها نسبت به شاهد (بدون باکتری-بدون زغال زیستی) شد. در تیمارهای زغال زیستی، شاخص‌های قابلیت دسترسی زیستی، کارایی حذف فلزات (به‌جزء سرب)، فاکتور انباشت زیستی و فاکتور انتقال (فقط در سطح مصرف 5/2 درصد زغال زیستی) سرب، مس و کادمیوم به‌ترتیب 13 تا 57، چهار تا 47، 29 تا 60 و 16 تا 33 درصد کم‌تر از شاهد اندازه‌گیری شد. تیمار ترکیبی باکتری-زغال زیستی نسبت به تیمار جداگانه زغال زیستی منجر به بهبود 191، 79، 84 و 13 درصدی به‌ترتیب در شاخص‌های مذکور شد. در کل، بر اساس یافته‌های پژوهش، ترکیب باکتری‌-زغال زیستی، منجر به دسترس‌پذیر کردن فلزات سنگین و بهبود کارایی نهال‌ها در حذف فلزات سنگین شد. از این رو، کاربرد ترکیبی باکتری-زغال زیستی به‌عنوان دو اصلاح کننده خاک، ضمن بهبود مؤلفه‌های رویشی نهال بید سفید، می­تواند دسترس‌پذیری فلزات سنگین توسط گیاه را تا حدودی فراهم کرده و فرآیند گیاه‌پالایی را بهبود ­بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Bioavailability of soil heavy metals as influenced by biochar and rhizosphere bacteria in the white willow (Salix alba L.) phytoremediation process

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Mokaram-Kashtiban 1
  • Seyed Mohsen Hosseini 2
  • Masoud Tabari Kouchaksaraie 2
  • Habibollah Younesi 3
1 Department of forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran
2 Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran.
3 Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Biochar is known as a widely-use amendment in improving phytoremediation efficiency through the increase of plant growth; whereas its influence (either individually or in combination with bacteria) on the reduction of heavy metals (HMs) bioavailability of soil is an important advantage. This study was planned to assess the effects of separately and combined of biochar produced by forest wood wastes of hornbeam at three levels of 0, 2.5 and 5% of soil dry weight and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on growth properties of potted white willow (Salix alba L.) seedling in a HM contaminated soil (Pb, Cu, and Cd). The variation of bioavailability (BA) and removal efficiency (RE) indexes, and bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors also were analyzed in the treatments. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse condition for a 160 days’ period. The results showed that the variation in most growth components of seedlings was significant in the separate and combined treatments. The combined treatment of bacteria-biochar (at 5% level) increased the dry weight of leaf, shoot, root and total plant about 59, 36, 142, and 85% in comparison to the control (without the biochar and bacteria). In the biochar treatments, the BA, RE (except Pb), BCF, and TF (only in 2.5% of biochar) for Pb, Cu, and Cd were 13-57, 4-47, 29-60, and 16-33% lower than those in control, respectively. These indexes were improved by up to 191, 79, 84, and 13% in the bacteria-biochar treatment in compared to the individual application of biochar. In overall, according to our findings, the combination of biochar-bacteria led to the HMs bioavailability and improving the white willow function to eliminate soil HMs. So that, co-application of biochar and bacteria as soil amendments can increase growth parameters in white willow seedling and improve HMs bioavailability of plant in phytoremediation process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioremediation
  • Metal bioaccumulation
  • Plant growth-promoting bacteria
  • Salix alba
  • soil contamination
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