تأثیر منابع مختلف کودی بر شکل‌های شیمیایی و آلی فسفر در یک خاک آهکی تحت کشت گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مربی پژوهش بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان قزوین، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

توزیع فراوانی اجزای مختلف فسفر در خاک‌‌های آهکی به ارزیابی هر چه‌بهتر وضعیت فسفر خاک کمک می­کند. کودهای آلی با اضافه نمودن مواد آلی و فسفر سبب افزایش پویایی فسفر خاک می‌گردند. این پژوهش به منظور تاثیر منابع کودی بر شکل های شیمیایی فسفر و با کاربرد 50 میلی‌گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منابع کودهای گوسفندی، کمپوست زباله شهری و سوپر فسفات تریپل به همراه تیمار شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) در پایه بلوک­های کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در یک خاک آهکی و در شرایط گلخانه انجام شد. در زمان انتهای رشد فیزیولوژیکی گیاه، ویژگی­های وزن خشک شاخسار، غلظت فسفر در برگ گندم، شکل­های آلی و معدنی فسفر خاک اندازه­گیری شدند. با کاربرد 50 میلی‌گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع کود گوسفندی، بیشترین میزان جذب فسفر توسط شاخسار گیاهی از تیمار سوپر فسفات تریپل حاصل شد. کلیه شکل‌های آلی فسفر به جز فسفر آلی با پایداری بالا با کاربرد تیمارهای کودی افزایش معنی‌داری (P<0.05) نسبت به شاهد داشتند. بیشترین سهم نسبی فسفر آلی، مربوط به فسفر آلی با پایداری متوسط و کمترین آن مربوط به فسفر آلی ناپایدار بود. بیشترین سهم نسبی شکل‌های معدنی فسفر مربوط به آپاتیت بود. با کاربرد 50 میلی گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منابع کود گوسفندی و سوپرفسفات تریپل، شکل معدنی کلسیم دی فسفات به ترتیب 2/4 و 9/3 برابر نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. شکل آلومینیوم فسفات با اعمال تیمارهای کودی گوسفندی، کمپوست زباله شهری و سوپر فسفات تریپل به ترتیب 0/31، 0/44 و 0/46 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. با استناد به داده­های پژوهش، با کاربرد 50 میلی گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع کود گوسفندی شکل های آلی فسفر و کاربرد 50 میلی گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع سوپرفسفات تریپل جذب فسفر و شکل­های معدنی آن در شرایط کشت گندم افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of fertilizer sources on chemical and organic forms of phosphorus under wheat cultivation in a calcareous soil

نویسنده [English]

  • jafar shahabifar
Research coach of Soil and Water Research Section, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The distribution of phosphorus (P) forms is very important to evaluate the soil P in calcareous soils. Organic fertilizers increase the soil P dynamics by adding organic matter. This experiment was conducted by using 50 mg P kg-1 soil from sheep manure (SM), municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and triple superphosphate (TSP) treatments with control (without fertilizer) in a calcareous soil in greenhouse conditions. At the end of the plant's physiological growth, dry weight of shoots, phosphorus concentrations of wheat, organic and inorganic forms of soil P were measured. The results showed that by using of 50 mg P kg-1 soilfrom SM, the highest P uptake by wheat was obtained from TSP treatment. All organic P forms significantly increased (P<0.05) in comparison with the control, but Highly Resistant Organic Phosphorus (HROP) showed invers trend. Moderately Resistant Organic Phosphorus (MROP) had the highest of organic P fraction and the Labile Organic Phosphorus (LOP) was the least. The highest fraction of mineral phosphorus was the apatite form. By applying of 50 mg P kg-1 soil from SM and TSP, Ca2P form increased by 4.2 and 3.9 times compared to control respectively. The AlP form increased by applying SM. MSWC and TSP treatments at 31.0, 44.0 and 46% compared to control, respectively. According to the research data, with the application of 50 mg P kg-1 soil from the source SM, increased organic phosphorus forms and by 50 mg P kg-1 soil from the source TSP, increased phosphorus absorption and its mineral forms in wheat cultivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Calcium phosphate
  • Compost
  • Labile phosphorus
  • sheep manure
  • triple super phosphate
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