تاثیر بیوچار باگاس نیشکر بر فراهمی عناصر غذایی و ویژگی های زیستی یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

کاربرد بیوچار در خاک می­تواند فراهمی عناصر غذایی و ویژگی­های زیستی خاک را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر بیوچار تهیه شده از باگاس نیشکر در دماهای مختلف بر تغییرات فراهمی عناصر غذایی و ویژگی­های میکروبی یک خاک آهکی بود. به­ این منظور بیوچارهای تهیه شده در دماهای 200 (B200)، 350 (B350) و 500 (B500) درجه سلسیوس در سطوح 1 و 2 درصد با نمونه خاک ترکیب شدند. نمونه­ها به­مدت سه ماه در شرایط انکوباسیون و در دمای ثابت (2 ± 25 درجه سلسیوس) نگهداری شدند. در پایان آزمایش برخی ویژگی­های شیمیایی و زیستی خاک و غلظت قابل استفاده عناصر غذایی در خاک اندازه­گیری شدند. این پژوهش به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور نوع و سطح کاربرد بیوچار و در سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد هر سه نوع بیوچار سبب افزایش ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی  (%9/12-9/1)، کربن آلی (%192-54)، غلظت قابل استفاده فسفر (%76-0/2)، پتاسیم (%1/18-2/5) و منگنز (%5/17-6/12)، شد. کاربرد بیوچار B500 غلظت قابل استفاده آهن، روی و مس در خاک را کاهش داد، اما کاربرد بیوچار B200 سبب افزایش معنی­دار غلظت قابل استفاده این عناصر غذایی در خاک شد. کاربرد بیوچار همچنین تنفس میکروبی (%108-0/20)، تنفس برانگیخته با سوبسترا (%142-5/16)، کربن زیست­توده میکروبی (MBC) (%124-2/8) و فعالیت آنزیم­های دهیدروژناز (%129-3/19) و کاتالاز (%178-4/34) در خاک را افزایش داد. تاثیر سطح کاربرد بیوچار در سطح 2 درصد در تغییرات ویژگی­های خاک بیش­تر از سطح 1 درصد بود. به­طور کلی نتایج نشان داد بیوچار تهیه شده از باگاس نیشکر در دماهای گرماکافت پایین (200 و 350 درجه سلسیوس)، بویژه 200 درجه سلسیوس می­تواند اصلاح کننده آلی مناسبی برای بهبود ماده آلی خاک، فراهمی عناصر غذایی و ویژگی­های زیستی خاک­های آهکی مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of Sugarcane Bagasse Biochar on Nutrient Availability and Biological Properties of a Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Karimi 1
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 2
  • Mostafa Chorom 3
  • Naeimeh Enayatizamir 2
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Professor, Department of of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

Biochar application can affect nutrient availability and biological properties of soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biochar derived sugarcane bagasse at different pyrolysis temperature on nutrient availability and biological properties of a calcareous soil. Therefore, biochars were produced at 200, 350 and 500˚C and mixed at 1 and 2% (w/w) with the soil. The soil samples were incubated in ambient temperature (25 ± 2°C), for 90 days. At the end of experiment, nutrient availability and some of chemical and biological properties of soil were measured. The experiment was carried out as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete design with two factors including biochar type and application rate in three replications. The results indicated application of biochars increased soil cation exchangeable capacity (1.9-12.9%), organic carbon (54-192%), available P (2.0-76.0%), K (5.2-18.1%) and Mn (12.6-17.5%). Application of B500 decreased the concentration of available Fe, Zn and Cu but application of B200 significantly increased of these nutrients. In addition, application of biochars significantly increased microbial respiration (20.0-108%), substrate-induced respiration (16.5-142%), microbial biomass carbon (8.2-124%) and activities of dehydrogenase (19.3-129%) and catalase (34.4-178%). The greatest increases in available concentration of micronutrients and microbial properties were observed in B200 treatment at 2% application rate. In general, the results indicated that sugarcane bagasse derived biochar produced at low temperature (200 and 350˚C) especially 200 ˚C can be suitable organic amendment for improving soil organic matter, nutrient availability and biological properties of calcareous soils in arid and semi-arid regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic amendments
  • Pyrolysis temperature
  • nutrient
  • Microbial activity
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