اثر نانوهیدروکسی‌آپاتیت بر برخی شاخص‌های زیستی در یک خاک آهکی آلوده به کادمیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

2 علوم خاک، کشاورزی، فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

3 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
آزمایش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر نانوهیدروکسی‌آپاتیت (nHAP) بر برخی شاخص‌های زیستی خاک و فراهمی کادمیم در یک خاک آهکی آلوده طراحی شد. این پژوهش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو سطح کادمیم (صفر و 40 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک)، دو سطح nHAP (صفر و 1 درصد وزنی خاک) و دو زمان انکوباسیون (14 و 28 روز) بودند. نمک کلرید کادمیم بصورت محلول در سطح خاک بطور یکنواخت پاشیده شد و یک ماه زمان تعادل به خاک داده شد، سپس nHAP در مقادیر صفر و یک درصد وزنی به خاک اضافه گردید. فعالیت آنزیم‌های اوره‌آز، دهیدروژناز و فسفاتاز قلیایی و همچنین تنفس پایه به همراه کادمیم زیست فراهم پس از 14 و 28 روز از اضافه شدن nHAP به خاک مورد اندازه‌گیری قرار گرفتند. کادمیم زیست فراهم در این آزمایش با عصاره‌گیر DTPA استخراج شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد nHAP در خاک آلوده، کادمیم زیست فراهم را 3/2 درصد کاهش داد، فعالیت آنزیم‌ اوره‌آز را 98 درصد افزایش داد اما بر فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی، دهیدروژناز و تنفس پایه بی‌تاثیر بود. بررسی شاخص‌های زیستی در خاک آلوده در زمان‌های 14و 28 روز نشان داد که با گذشت زمان فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز روندی صعودی و فعالیت آنزیم‌های اوره‌آز و دهیدروژناز روندی نزولی داشت، اما فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز و میزان تنفس پایه تغییر معنی‌داری پیدا نکرد. همچنین در این مطالعه مشخص شد که گذشت زمان موجب کاهش 7/10 درصدی کادمیم زیست فراهم شد. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده می‌توان بیان داشت که nHAP  بر شاخص‌های زیستی خاک اثری متفاوت داشت اما بر کادمیم زیست فراهم اثر کاهشی داشت اگرچه مقدار آن قابل ملاحظه نبود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Nano-hydroxyapatite on Some Bioindicators in a Cadmium Contaminated Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Farzanegan 1
  • alireza astaraei 2
  • amir fotovat 3
  • Amir Lakzian 3
1 Soil science, Agriculture, Ferdowsi university, Mashhad, Iran
2 Soil Science, Agriculture, Ferdowsi, Mashhad, Iran
3 Soil science, ferdowsi university of mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) on some soil bioindicators and availability of cadmium in a polluted calcareous soil. This research was carried out in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included two levels of Cd (0 and 40 mg kg-1 soil), two levels of nHAP (0 and 1%) and two incubation times (14 and 28 days). The cadmium chloride solution was uniformly sprayed on the soil surface and equilibrated for a month, then nHAP was added to the soil at 0 and 1 w/w %. The activity of urease, dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, basal respiration and bioavilable Cd were measured after 14 and 28 days. Bioavilable Cd was extracted by DTPA. The results showed that the addition of nHAP in the Cd contaminated soil decreased bioavailable Cd by 2.3%, increased the activity of urease enzyme by 98% while had no effect on the activity of phosphatase, dehydrogenase and basal respiration. Investigation of changes of bioindicators in 14 and 28 days incubation in Cd contaminated soil showed that the activity of urease and dehydrogenase enzyme had a declining trend but the activity of phosphatase enzyme and basal respiration did not significantly change. It was also found that bioavailable Cd decreased with incubation time by 10.7%. In general, it may be concluded that nHAP influenced biological index in the calcareous soil differently, but it caused reduction effect on bioavailable cadmium in soil, although this reduction was not considerable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amendment
  • Enzymatic activity
  • heavy metal
  • Nano particle
References

Acosta-Martínez V., Cruz L., Sotomayor-Ramírez D., and Pérez-Alegría L. 2007. Enzyme activities as affected by soil properties and land use in a tropical watershed. Applied Soil Ecology, 35(1): .35-45.

Antisari L.V., Carbone S., Gatti A., Vianello G., and Nannipieri P. 2013. Toxicity of metal oxide (CeO2, Fe3O4, SnO2) engineered nanoparticles on soil microbial biomass and their distribution in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 60: 87-94.

Baoshan Y., Fei H., Qinglin C., and Hui W. 2015. Toxicological effects of Cd pollution on soil urease activity. In 2015 AASRI International Conference on Circuits and Systems (CAS 2015). Atlantis Press, pp. 96-98.

Buzea C., Pacheco Blandino I.I., and Robbie K. 2007. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity. Biointerphases, 2: MR17-MR71.

Chaney W.R., Kelly J.M., and Strickland R.C. 1978. Influence of cadmium and zinc on carbon dioxide evolution from litter and soil from a black oak forest 1. Journal of Environmental Quality, 7(1): 115-119.

Chen Y.P., Liu Q., Liu Y.J., Jia F.A., and He X.H. 2014. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2. Scientific reports, 4, p.4287.

Chen J.H., Wang Y.J., Zhou D.M., Cui Y.X., Wang S.Q., and Chen Y.C. 2010. Adsorption and desorption of Cu (II), Zn (II), Pb (II), and Cd (II) on the soils amended with nanoscale hydroxyapatite. Environmental progress & sustainable energy, 29(2): 233-241.

Cui H., Zhou J., Zhao Q., Shi Y., Mao J., Fang G., and Liang J. 2013. Fractions of Cu, Cd, and enzyme activities in a contaminated soil as affected by applications of micro-and nanohydroxyapatite. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13(4): 742-752.

Diaz-Ravina M., and Baath E. 1996. Development of metal tolerance in soil bacterial communities exposed to experimentally increased metal levels. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(8): 2970-2977. Eivazi F. and Tabatabai M.A. 1977. Phosphatases in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9(3): 167-172.

Ding L., Li J., Liu W., Zuo Q., and Liang S.X. 2017. Influence of Nano-Hydroxyapatite on the metal bioavailability, plant metal accumulation and root exudates of ryegrass for phytoremediation in lead-polluted soil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(5): 532-540.

Doelman P., and Haanstra L. 1986. Short-and long-term effects of heavy metals on urease activity in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2(4): 213-218.

El Hadri H., Louie S.M., and Hackley V.A. 2017. Assessing the interactions of metal nanoparticles in soil and sediment matrices–a quantitative analytical multi-technique approach. Environmental Science: Nano, 5(1): 203-214.ا

Fan D., Han J., Chen Y., Zhu Y., and Li P. 2018. Hormetic effects of Cd on alkaline phosphatase in soils across particle–size fractions in a typical coastal wetland. Science of the Total Environment, 613:792-797.

Frenk S., Ben-Moshe T., Dror I., Berkowitz B., and Minz D. 2013. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on microbial community structure and function in two different soil types. Plos One, 8(12): e84441.

Ge Y., Schimel J. P., and Patricia A. Holden P. A. 2013. Evidence for negative effects of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles on soil bacterial communities. Environmental Science Technology, 45: 1659–1664.

Gee G.W., and Bauder J.W. 1982. Hydrometer Method. P 383-314, In: Klute, A. (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis: Physical Properties, Part 1, second Ed. Agron Monogr, No 9, Madison WI: ASA and SSSA.

Hassan W., Akmal M., Muhammad I., Younas M., Zahaid K.R., and Ali F. 2013. Response of soil microbial biomass and enzymes activity to cadmium (Cd), 7 (5): 674-680.

He M., Shi H., Zhao X., Yu Y., and Qu B. 2013. Immobilization of Pb and Cd in contaminated soil using nanocrystallite Hydroxyapatite. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18: 657–665.

He Z., Shentu J., Yang X., Baligar V.C., Zhang T., and Stoffella P.J. 2015. Heavy metal contamination of soils: sources, indicators and assessment, 9:17-18.

Jiang J., Oberdorster G., and Biswa P. 2008. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies. Journal Nanoparticle Research, 11:77–89.

Jiang S.D., Yao Q.Z., Zhou G.T., and Fu S.Q. 2012. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite hierarchical hollow microspheres and potential application in water treatment. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(7): 4484-4492.

Kandziora-Ciupa M., Ciepał R., and Nadgorska-Socha A. 2016. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and enzymatic activity in pine forest soils under different levels of anthropogenic stress. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(3):1-7.

Karaca A., Cetin S.C., Turgay O.C., and Kizilkaya R. 2010. Effects of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities. In Soil heavy metals, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 237-262.

Khan S., Hesham A.E.L., Qiao M., Rehman S., and He J.Z. 2010. Effects of Cd and Pb on soil microbial community structure and activities. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17(2): 288-296.

Kim J., Grate J.W., and Wang P. 2006. Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization. Chemical Engineering Science, 61: 1017–1026.

Kizilkaya R., Aşkın T., Bayrakli B., and Saglam M. 2004. Microbiological characteristics of soils contaminated with heavy metals. European Journal of Soil Biology, 40(2): 95-102.

Kumpiene J., Ore S., Renella G., Mench M., Lagerkvist A., and Maurice C. 2006. Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper and arsenic in soil. Environmental Pollution, 144: 62-69.

Landi L., Renella G., Moreno J.L., Falchini L., and Nannipieri P. 2000. Influence of cadmium on the metabolic quotient, L-: D-glutamic acid respiration ratio and enzyme activity: microbial biomass ratio under laboratory conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 32(1): 8-16.

Leinweber P., Jandl G., Baum C., Eckhardt K.U., and Kandeler E. 2008. Stability and composition of soil organic matter control respiration and soil enzyme activities. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40(6): 1496-1505.

Lindsay W.L., and Norvell W.A. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3): 421-428.

Liu W., Zuo Q., Zhao C., Wang S., Shi Y., Liang S., Zhao C., and Shen S. 2018. Effects of Bacillus subtilis and nanohydroxyapatite on the metal accumulation and microbial diversity of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) for the remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(25): 25217-25226.

Loeppert R. H., and Suarez L. 1996. Carbonate and gypsum. In ‘Methods of soil 10 analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. (Ed. DL Sparks) Pp: 437–474. Soil Science Society of America journal: Madison, WI.

Ma H., Williams P. L., and Diamond S. A. 2013. Ecotoxicity of manufactured ZnO nanoparticlese - A review. Environmental Pollution, 172: 76-85.

Marzadori C., Miletti S., Gessa C., and Ciurli S. 1998. Immobilization of Jack Bean Urease on hydroxyapatite: Urease immobilization in alkaline soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30: 1485-1490.

Masto R.E., Ahirwar R., George J., Ram L.C., and Selvi V.A. 2011. Soil biological and biochemical response to Cd exposure. Open Journal Soil Science, 1: 8-15.

Mueller N.C., and Nowack B. 2010. Nanoparticles for remediation: solving big problems with little particles. Elements, 6(6): 395-400.

Nannipieri P. 1994. The potential use of soil enzymes as indicators of productivity, sustainability and pollution. In: Pankhurst, C.E., Doube. B.M., Gupta, V.V.S.R., Grace. P.R. (Eds). Soil Biota: Management in Sustainable Farming Systems. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne, Australia: 238-244.

Patil A.J., Muthusamy E., and Mann S. 2004. Synthesis and self‐assembly of organoclay‐wrapped biomolecules. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43(37): 4928-4933.

Remediuos C., Rosario F., and Bastos V. 2012. Environmental Nanoparticles Interactions with Plants: Morphological, Physiological, and Genotoxic Aspects. Journal of Botany.1-8.

Rhoades J.D. 1982. Soluble salts. Pp: 167-179, In: Page, A.L. (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis: Chemical and microbiological properties, Part 2. 2nd Ed. Agron. Monogr. No.9, ASA and SSSA, Madison WI.

Sardar K.H., Qing C.A.O., Hesham A.E.L., Yue X., and He J.Z. 2007. Soil enzymatic activities and microbial community structure with different application rates of Cd and Pb. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19(7): 834-840.

Sethi S., and Gupta S. 2015. Responses of soil enzymes to different heavy metals. Biolife, 3:147-153.

Shi W., and Ma X. 2017. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 24(4): 722-72

Sposito G., Lund L.J., and Chang A.C. 1982. Trace metal chemistry in arid zone field soils amended with sewage sludge: I. Fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil phases. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46(2): 260–264.

Tabatabai M. A., and Bremner J. M. 1972. Assay of urease activity in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 4(4): 479-487.

Tabatabai M.A., and Bremner J.M. 1969. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1(4): 301-307.

Thalmann A. 1966. The determination of the dehydrogenase activity in soil by means of TTC (triphenyltetrazolium). Soil Biology, 6: 46-49.

Usman A., Kuzyakov Y., and Stahr K. 2005. Effect of clay minerals on immobilization of heavy metals and microbial activity in a sewage sludge-contaminated soil. Journal of Soil Sediment, 5(4): 245–252.

Vance E.D., Brookes P.C., and Jenkinson D.S. 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19(6): 703-707.

Vig K., Megharaj M., Sethunathan N., and Naidu R. 2003. Bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to microorganisms and their activities in soil (a review). Advances in Environ. Research, 8(1): 121-135.

Walkley A., and Black I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29-38.

Wei L., Wang S., Zuo Q., Liang S., Shen S., and Zhao C. 2016. Nano-hydroxyapatite alleviates the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plant growth and soil microbes in e-waste-contaminated soil. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 18(6): 760-767.

WHO. 1996. Trace Element in Human Nutrition and Health, WHO, Genova, 361p.

Wieczorek J., Baran A., Urbański K., Mazurek R., and Klimowicz-Pawlas A. 2018. Assessment of the pollution and ecological risk of lead and cadmium in soils. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40(6): 2325-2342.

Wu C., Yan S., Zhang H., and Luo Y. 2015. Chemical forms of cadmium in a calcareous soil with different levels of phosphorus-containing acidifying agents. Soil Research, 53(1): 105–111.

Xie W., Zhou J., Wang H., Chen X., Lu Z., Yu J., and Chen X. 2009. Short-term effects of copper, cadmium and cypermethrin on dehydrogenase activity and microbial functional diversity in soils after long term mineral or organic fertilization. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129(4): 450-456.

Yang Y., Dong M., Cao Y., Wang J., Tang M., and Ban Y. 2017. Comparisons of soil properties, enzyme activities and microbial communities in heavy metal contaminated bulk and rhizosphere soils of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the northern foot of Qinling mountain. Forests, 8(11), p.430.