ارزیابی کمّی آلودگی فلزات سنگین در خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 شیمی-حاصلخیزی نانوذره ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

چکیده
آلودگی و انباشت فلزات سنگین در آب و خاک به دلیل سمّیت، فراوانی منابع آلاینده، تجزیه­ناپذیر بودن و انباشت آنها در محیط، مشکلی جدی در سطح جهان است. آگاهی از میزان آلودگی فلزات سنگین در سیستم­های خاک در تصمیم­گیری جهت کاهش آلودگی، کاهش در معرض­ قرارگیری انسان با آلودگی ناشی از فلزات سنگین و حفاظت انسان از خطرات آلودگی ضروری به نظر می­رسد. در این راستا از شاخص­های ارزیابی آلودگی به عنوان ابزاری مفید برای ارزیابی میزان آلودگی استفاده می­کنند. در این مقاله برای ارزیابی میزان آلودگی فلزات سنگین در خاک شاخص زمین­انباشت (Igeo)، فاکتور غنی­سازی (EF)، شاخص آلودگی (PI)، فاکتور آلودگی (Cf)، فاکتور خطر اکولوژیکی (Eri)، مجموع شاخص آلودگی (PIsum)، شاخص آلودگی نمرو (PINemerow)، شاخص بار آلودگی (PLI)، میانگین شاخص آلودگی (PIavg)، ضریب بُرداری شاخص آلودگی (PIVector)، فاکتور غنی­سازی زمینه (PIN)، آلودگی چند-عنصری (MEC)، شاخص امنیت آلودگی (CSI)، شاخص احتمال سمیت (MERMQ)، درجه آلودگی (Cdeg)، خطر اکولوژیکی بالقوه (RI)، درجه آلودگی اصلاح شده (mCd) و فاکتور در معرض قرارگیری (ExF) مرور شدند. در پایان، روشی برای بی­بعدسازی شاخص­های فوق و محاسبه شاخصی تلفیقی حاصل از مجموع نمره وزن­دار شده همه شاخص­های منفرد برای تصمیم­گیری در خصوص آلودگی خاک پیشنهاد ­گردید. استفاده از این شاخص­ها می­تواند در ارزیابی کمّی و پهنه­بندی آلودگی خاک برای اهداف مدیریتی سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantitative Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals Pollution

نویسنده [English]

  • Roghaie Hamzenejhad 1
1 Department of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation in soil and water is a serious problem throghout the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable nature, and accumulative behavior of HMs in environment. A comprehensive understanding of the HM pollution in soil is essential in order to make informed decisions on the approaches to reduce contamination, minimize human exposure, and protect populations from the risk. Pollution indices widely considered as useful tools for evaluation of the degree of contamination. In this paper, geo-accumlation Index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF); single pollution index (PI), contamination factor (Cf), eological risk factor (Eri), sum of pollution index (PIsum), Nemerow pollution index (PINemerow), pollution load index (PLI), vector modulus of pollution index (PIVector), background enrichment factor (PIN), multi-element contamination (MEC), contamination security index (CSI), the probability of toxicity (MERMQ), degree of contamination (Cdeg), modified degree of contamination (mCd), potential ecological risk (RI), exposure factor (ExF) were suggested to address the degree of HM pollution in soil. Finally, a method was proposed for non-dimensionalisation of the above-mentioned indices as well as for calculation of an integrated soil contamination index derived from the sum of the weighted-average scores of all individual indicators. Using these indicators is useful in quantitative evaluation and digital mapping of soil pollution for management purposes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • heavy metal
  • Pollution Indices
  • Soil pollution
References

Abrahim G.M.S., and Parker R.J. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 136: 227–238.

Adamu C.L., and Nganje T.N. 2010. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in relationship to land use patterns: A case study of Benue State, Nigeria. Materials Sciences andApplications, 1: 127–134.

Afyuni M. 2013. Soil Quality Standards and its Guides, Office of Vice Human Environment, Water and Soil Office, 161p.

Alloway B.J. 2012. Heavy Metals in Soils: Trace Metals and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability. 3nd Ed. Springer Science & Business Media, 614p.

Azarneshan S., Khormali F., Sarmadian F., Kiani F., and Eftekhari K. 2018. Soil Quality Evaluation of Semi-arid and Arid Lands in Qazvin Plain, Iran. Journal of Water and Soil. 32: 359-374. (In Persian)

Bazbelewska A. 2010. The impact of industrial emissions on heavy metal and sulphur contamination level within the area of the projected Jurassic National Park. PradnikStudies and Reports of the Prof Władysław Szafer Museum, 20: 135–145.

Beygi M. and Jalali M. 2018. Background levels of some trace elements in calcareous soils of the Hamedan Province, Iran. Catena, 162: 303-316.

Bhuiyana M.A.H., Parvez L., Islam M.A., Dampare S.B., and Suzukia S. 2010. Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 173: 384–392.

Caeiro S., Costa M.H., Ramos T.B., Fernandes F., Silveira N., and Coimbra A. 2005. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecological Indicators, 5: 151–169.

Ćujić M., Dragović S., Đorđević M., Dragović R., and Gajić B. 2016. Environmental assessment of heavy metals around the largest coal fired power plant in Serbia. Catena, 139: 44-52.

Gong M., Bi X.Y., Ren L.M., Wang L., Ma Z.D., Bao Z.Y., and Li Z.G. 2009. Assessing heavy-metal contamination and sources by GIS-based approach and multivariate analysis of urban–rural topsoil’s in Wuhan, central China. Journal of Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 32(1): 59-72.

Gong Q., Deng J., Xiang Y., Wang Q., and Yang L. 2008. Calculating pollution indices by heavy metals in ecological geochemistry assessment and a case study in parks of Beijing. Journal of China University of Geosciences, 19: 230–241.

Hakanson L. 1980. Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Journal of Water Research, 14: 975–1001.

Inengite A.K., Abasi C.Y., and Walter C. 2015. Application of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in flood impacted soil. International ResearchJournal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 8: 175–189.

Karbasi A., Lak M., and Sanaee M. 2016. Study on environmental geochemistry of toxic elements in the west area of Khoy city to the Razi border. Journal of environmental sciences Studies, 1(3): 57-66. (In Persian)

Khodakarami L. 2009. Evaluation of non-point sources of pollution in agriculture using RS and GIS. M.Sc. Thesis. Esfahan University of Technology, Iran.

Khodaverdiloo H., and Ghorbani Dashtaki Sh., 2012. A brief survey of metal-accumulated plants and their host soils in Iran, Journal of Environment Science, 51: 3-12. (In Persian)

Kloke A. 1979. Content of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Fluorine, Lead, Mercury, and Nickel in Plants Grown on Contaminated Soils. United Nations-ECE symposium, Geneva, 51p.

Kowalska J.B., Mazurek R., Gąsiorek M., and Zaleski T. 2018. Pollution indices as useful tools for the comprehensive evaluation of the degree of soil contamination–A review. Environmental geochemistry and health, 40: 2395–2420.

Liu W., Zhao J., Ouyang Z., Söderlund L., and Liu G. 2005. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Journal of Environment International, 31(6): 805–812.

Liu Y., Zhu Y.G., and Hui D. 2007. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI). Environmental Polluttion, 145: 387-390.

Long E.R., MacDonald D.D., Smith L., and Calder F.D. 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management, 19: 81–97.

Mashiatullah A., Chaudhary M.Z., Ahmad N., Javed T., and Ghaffar A. 2013. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 185:1555–1565.

McBride M.B. 1994. Environmental Chemistry of Soils. Oxford University Press. New York, 89p.

Mousavi M.H., Purnia M., and Amiri F. 2013. Distribution of heavy metals in agricultural soils around factory of Karoon Cement, South-East Masjed Soleiman. Journal of geochemistry, 3: 215-226.

Müller G. 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in the sediments of the Rhine River. Geojournal, 2: 108-118.

Pejman A., Gholamrez Nabi B., Saeedi M., and Baghvanda A. 2015. A new index for assessing heavy metals contamination in sediments: A case study. Ecological Indicators, 58: 365–373.

Qingjie G., Jun D., Yunchuan X., Qingjie W., and Liqiang Y. 2008. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing. Journal of China University of Geosciences, 19: 230-241.

Rashid Shomali A., and Khodaverdiloo H. 2012. Contamination of soils and plants along urmia-salmas highway (Iran) to some heavy metals. Water and Soil Science, 22(3): 157-172. (In Persian)

Rasouli Sadaghiani M.H., Ghodrat K., Ashrafi S., Jafari M., and Khodaverdiloo H. 2016. Evaluation of soil quality indices in Northern Zagros Forests (case study: Oshnaviye-west Azirbaijan). Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 3:83-89. (In Persian with English abstract)

Rastegari Mehr M., Keshavarzi B., Moore F., Sharifi R., Lahijanzadeh A., and Kermani M. 2017. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 132: 16-26.

Rezaei S.A., Gilkes R.J., and Andrews S.S. 2006. A minimum data set for assessing soil quality in rangelands. Geoderma, 136:229–234.

Sutherland R.A. 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology, 39: 611-627.

Turekian K.K., and Wedepohl K.H. 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 72(2): 175–92.

Zhang L., Ye X., Feng H., Jing Y., Ouyang T., Yu X., Liang R., Gao C., and Chen W. 2007. Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54: 974-982.

Zhu Z.Q., Zhu Y.W., and Shi Z. 2009. Research of Agricultural Soil Environment and Agricultural Product Safety. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, China, 69p.