تأثیر زغال زیستی و قارچ میکوریز بر خصوصیات رشدی و تغذیه گیاه همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، ایران

3 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، ایران

4 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
کاربرد قارچ میکوریز و زغال زیستی می­تواند با افزایش جذب آب و عناصر از منطقه ریشه باعث بهبود تولید محصول ­شوند. به منظور بررسی اثر زغال زیستی بقایای هرس هلو (صفر، دو و چهار درصد وزنی-وزنی) و قارچ میکوریز (عدم تلقیح و تلقیح با قارچ میکوریز) بر خصوصیات مرفوفیزیولوژیک و غلظت عناصر در اندام­هوایی همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L.)آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه انجام شد. زغال زیستی تهیه شده از الک دو میلی­متری عبور داده و با خاک مخلوط شد. کاربرد قارچ میکوریز به روش تماس مستقیم با ریشه گیاه انجام شد. پس از شش ماه، ویژگی­های مرفوفیزیولوژیک و غلظت برخی عناصر ماکرو و میکرو در اندام هوایی اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که با کاربرد همزمان چهار درصد زغال زیستی و قارچ میکوریز، کلروفیل، قطر گل، ارتفاع گیاه، سطح برگ، قطر ساقه، وزن خشک گیاه و غلظت عناصر فسفر، پتاسیم، کلسیم و آهن نسبت به شاهد به­طور معنی­داری افزایش یافت. تیمار چهار درصد زغال زیستی و کاربرد همزمان چهار درصد زغال زیستی و قارچ میکوریز توانست غلظت روی را در اندام هوایی گیاه نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 7/13 و 5/19 درصد افزایش دهد. کاربرد چهار درصد زغال زیستی منجر به افزایش معنی­دار Mn نسبت به شاهد شد (3/91 در مقابل6/86 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم برای شاهد)، در حالی که کاربرد دو درصد زغال زیستی تفاوت معنی­داری نسبت به تیمار شاهد و چهار درصد زغال زیستی نشان نداد. نتایج تأثیر اضافه کردن زغال زیستی به خاک پس از دوره رشد گیاه نشان داد که با اضافه کردن چهار درصد زغال زیستی، پتاسیم قابل جذب، Ca، Mg و Mn نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب2/31، 4/71، 8/25 و 3/27 درصد افزایش یافت. به­نظر می­رسد کاربرد این مواد بتواند با بهبود فراهمی عناصر غذایی و شرایط رشد گیاه، باعث افزایش شاخص‌های رشدی گیاه شده و تولید محصول را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Biochar and Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Growth Characteristics and Nutrition of Calendula (Calendula Officinalis L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Karimi 1
  • Mostafa Shirmardi 2
  • Maryam Dehestani Ardakani 3
  • Mojtaba Karimi 4
  • Jalal Gholamnezhad 3
1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran
3 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.
4 Department of Agronomy, Agriculture Faculty, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Application of Mycorrhizal Fungi (MF) and biochar can increase water and nutrient uptake in the rooting zone and thus improve crop production. A factorial experiment with completely randomized design with three replications was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar (0, 2 and 4% w/w) and MF (non-inoculation and inoculation with MF) on the morphophysiological characteristics and concentration of elements in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) in greenhouse condition. The biochar was passed through a sieve of 2 mm and mixed with soil. The application of mycorrhizal fungi was done by direct contact with the root of plant. After six months, the morphophysiological characteristics and the concentration of some macro and micro elements in shoot were measured. The results showed that with simultaneous application of 4% biochar and mycorrhizal fungi increased chlorophyll, flower diameter, plant height, leaf area, stem diameter, plant dry weight and concentration of P, K, Ca and Fe compared to control, significantly. Zn concentration increased in 4% biochar treatment and simultaneous use of 4% biochar and mycorrhizal fungui compared to the control significantly (13.7 and 19.5% respectively). The application of 4% biochar caused a significant increase in Mn concentration compared to the control (91.3 against 86.6 mg.kg-1), while the application of 2% biochar has not a significant difference with control and 4% biochar treatments. The results of the effect of adding biohar to soil after plant growth period showed that available K, Ca, Mg and Mn increased with addition of 4% biochar by 22.2, 18.2, 43.6 and 15.2%, respectively. However, 2% biochar treatment had no significant effect on these soil parameters compared to control. It seems that application of these materials can improve availability of nutrients and plant growth parameters by improving plant growth conditions and affect crop production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Biofertilizer
  • Organic amendments
  • Plant Nutrition
  • Macro elements
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