بررسی ارتباط متقابل فرآیندهای خاک‌ساز با فرآیندهای زمین‌ریخت‌شناختی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور

2 مرکز تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
خاک­ها با ریخت‌های سرزمینی که بر روی آن­ها تشکیل می‌شوند و تکامل می­یابند، ارتباط بسیار نزدیک و متقابل دارند. بنابراین، هر تغییری در فرآیندهای زمین‌ریختی، فرآیندهای خاک­سازی را متأثر می­سازد. "زمین‌ریخت‌شناسی خاک" یا "ژئومورفولوژی خاک" ارتباط خاک و زمین‌ریخت را بررسی می­کند. هرچند ارتباط زمین‌ریخت با خاک مورد توجه پژوهش‌گران بوده، اما بررسی کمّی رابطه خاک با زمین‌ریخت، کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این در حالی است که رابطه خاک با زمین‌ریخت، یک رابطه دو طرفه است و می‌توان به موضوع این­گونه نگریست که وجود یک خاک می‌تواند نشان‌گر چه زمین‌ریخت یا زمین‌ریخت‌هایی باشد؟ بر همین اساس، پژوهش کنونی می‌کوشد تا با بکارگیری آمار و احتمال شرطی، به بررسی کمّی این موضوع بپردازد. برای این منظور، یگان‌های زمین‌ریختی منطقه مرکزی اصفهان بر اساس روش ژئوپدولوژی (روش پیشنهادی زینک) جداسازی شدند و تعداد 344 نقطه مطالعاتی بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل گردید و احتمال شرطی وجود هر زمین‌ریخت، به شرط مشاهده خاک‌های مختلف به‌دست آمد. یافته‌ها به‌طور کمّی نشان دادند که بین تکوین و تکامل خاک با محیط زمین‌ریخت حاکم بر آن، ارتباطی قوی و تنگاتنگ وجود دارد. به‌طوری که برخی از خاک‌ها را می‌توان تنها در زمین‌ریخت مشخصی یافت و به‌عبارت دیگر، آن خاک را یک خاک شاخص برای آن زمین‌ریخت مشخص دانست. به‌دلیل همین رابطه نزدیک بین سطوح روش زمین‌خاک‌شناسی با سلسله مراتب سامانه رده‌بندی خاک آمریکایی، در هر سطح زمین‌ریختی از سطح رده به سمت فامیل، واگرایی یا تفرق خاک‌ها افزایش می‌یابد. همچنین یافته‌ها به‌طور کمّی نشان دادند که در منطقه مطالعاتی، تأثیر ناهمواری‌ها و ‌زمین­ریخت‌ها بر تکوین و تکامل خاک‌های منطقه، بیش از  مواد مادری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Interconnection of Soil-Forming Processes with Geomorphological Processes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Bagheri 1
  • Norair Toomanian 2
1 Soil and Water Research Institute
2 Soil and Water Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Soils are the outermost layer of the earth's crust, and they are closely interrelated with the formation of the land on which they are formed and developed. Therefore, any change in the geomorphic processes affects the soil-forming processes. "Soil geomorphology" is an assessment of the genetic relationships between soils and landforms. Although the relationships between landforms and soils have been investigated by researchers, a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between soil and geomorphic surface has been less considered. However, the soil-geomorphology relationship is a two-way relationship, and a question arises here is that how an observed soil can indicate geomorphic surfaces or landforms? Accordingly, the current research tries to examine this issue with the use of statistics and conditional probability. For this purpose, the geomorphic units of the central region of Isfahan were delineated using geopedology approach (Zinck method) and 344 soil profiles were analyzed, and the conditional probability of the existence of each geomorphic unit was obtained on condition of observation of different soils. The findings quantitatively showed that there is a strong and close relationship between soil development and formation and the geomorphic condition, so that some soils can be found only in certain geomorphic unit. In other words, the soil is an indicator/unique soil for the geomorphic unit. Due to the similar relationship between the geomorphical levels and the soil taxonomical levels, the diversity increased as the taxonomical levels increased from orders to the families. Also, the findings showed slightly in the study area that the effect of "landforms and topography" on the development and formation of soils is more than parent material.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conditional probability
  • Geopedology
  • Soil mapping
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