اثر کاربرد فسفر و زغال زیستی بر فراهمی فسفر، رشد و عملکرد سورگوم تلقیح شده با باکتری‌ حل‌کننده فسفات

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران ، ziaeian@yahoo.com

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران، moradi1373@gmail.com

3 استادیاران بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران zareian48@yahoo.com

4 استادیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زرقان،

چکیده

چکیده
 به دلیل آهکی بودن خاک‌های کشور ما، فراهمی فسفر برای گیاهان پائین است. به‌منظور بررسی اثرات کاربرد ریزجانداران خاک و زغال زیستی بر فراهمی فسفر، رشد و عملکرد سورگوم و برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک، یک آزمایش گلدانی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام شد. در این تحقیق اثرات دو تیمار تلقیح و عدم تلقیح باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات و دو تیمار مصرف زغال زیستی (صفر و 5/1 درصد وزنی) بر چهار سطح صفر، 25، 50 و 75 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم P2O5 از منبع سوپر فسفات تریپل، در سه تکرار، مطالعه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تلقیح باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات و کاربرد زغال زیستی اثر افزایشی معنی‌داری بر حجم ریشه، عملکرد تر و خشک ریشه، وزن تر علوفه و جذب فسفر، نیتروژن و پتاسیم داشت. مصرف فسفر از طریق افزایش ارتفاع و قطر ساقه‌ها موجب افزایش معنی‌دار وزن علوفه گردید. کاربرد فسفر همچنین شوری خاک را افزایش و کربن آلی خاک را کاهش داد اما تلقیح باکتریایی مقدار کربن آلی را افزایش و شوری خاک را کاهش داد. کاربرد زغال زیستی نیز میزان کربن آلی و شوری خاک را افزایش داد اما هیچکدام تأثیر معنی‌داری بر اسیدیته خاک نداشتند. داده‌ها نشان دادند که هر چند کاربرد منفرد زغال زیستی و یا باکتری تأثیر معنی‌داری بر افزایش جذب فسفر داشتند اما کاربرد توام زغال زیستی با فسفر، باکتری با فسفر و همچنین کاربرد توام هر سه با هم از طریق افزایش بیش‌تر جذب فسفر موجب افزایش عملکرد سورگوم شدند به عبارت دیگر زغال زیستی یا باکتری تأثیر مثبتی بر اثر بخشی مصرف فسفر داشتند به طوری که بیش‌ترین ارتفاع بوته‌، علوفه تر و خشک و بیش‌ترین جذب کل فسفر، نیتروژن، پتاسیم و روی از کاربرد توام باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات و زغال زیستی و مصرف 50 میلی‌گرم P2O5 به ازا هر کیلوگرم خاک حاصل گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Phosphorous and Biochar Application on the Phosphorous Availability, Growth and Yield of Sorghum Inoculated with Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolhossein Ziaeian 1
  • Abolfateh Moradi 2
  • Gholamreza Zareian 3
  • Jahanbakhsh Mirzavand 4
1 Associate Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Shiraz, Iran. ziaeian@yahoo.com
2 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Shiraz, Iran. moradi1373@gmail.com
3 Assistant Professors, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Shiraz, Iran. zareian48@yahoo.com
4 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zarghan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Due to the calcareous nature of our country's soils, the plant phosphorus availability is low.  In order to study the effects of soil microorganisms and biochar application on the phosphorous availability, growth and yield of sorghum and some soil chemical characteristics, a pot experiment as factorial in completely randomized design were conducted. In this research, effects of two treatments of inoculation and non-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and two biochar consumption treatments (0 and 1.5% by weight) on the four levels of zero, 25, 50 and 75 mg .kg-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate source, in three replications were studied. The results showed that phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation and biochar application had a significant increase on the volumes, fresh and dry weight of roots, fresh forage yield and phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium and zinc uptake. Using phosphorus increased the forage weight by increasing the height and diameter of the stems. Phosphorus application also increased soil salinity and decreased soil organic carbon, but bacteria inoculation increased the amounts of organic carbon and decreased soil salinity while biochar application increased both of organic carbon and salinity amounts. None of them had a significant effect on soil acidity. Data showed that although single application of the biochar and or bacteria had significant effects on the phosphorus uptake increases, but combined use of biochar and phosphorus and bacteria with phosphorus and also combination of these three treatments caused sorghum yield increases by increasing of phosphorus uptake. In other words, biochar or bacterial had a positive effect on the phosphorus effectiveness so that the highest plant height, fresh and dry forage, and the highest phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and zinc uptake were obtained from the combined use of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, biochar and 50 mg P2O5 per kg of soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Foliage sorghum
  • Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
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