بررسی اثر پلیمر پلی‌وینیل‌استات، زغال زیستی اسیدی و هیدروژل سلولز کاه گندم بر ظرفیت نگهداشت آب در خاک شنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

بحران خشکسالی، ضرورت صرفه­جویی و کاربرد بهینه آب را در بخش کشاورزی بیش از پیش نشان می­دهد. یکی از راهکار­های استفاده بهینه از منابع آب و حفظ آن کاربرد مواد آلی و جاذب­های طبیعی و مصنوعی است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی اثر پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات، زغال زیستی کاه گندم و هیدروژل سلولز کاه گندم بر نگهداشت رطوبت ( در مکش­های 33، 100، 300، 500 و 1500 کیلوپاسکال)، جرم ویژه ظاهری، پایداری خاکدانه­ها و مقدار کربن آلی خاک شنی بود. بدین منظور آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. خاک شنی از کانون گرد و غبار جنوب شرق اهواز نمونه­برداری شد. فاکتورها شامل (1) نوع اصلاح کننده (پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات، هیدروژل کاه گندم و زغال زیستی کاه گندم)، (2) غلظت اصلاح کننده (پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات: پنج و 10 گرم بر لیتر، زغال زیستی و هیدروژل سلولز: یک و سه درصد وزنی و (3) زمان (21، 42، 63 و 126 روز) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تمام تیمار­های آزمایشی مقدار نگهداشت رطوبت خاک را در همه­ی مکش­ها بصورت معنی­دار (01/0p<) افزایش داد. افزودن مواد اصلاح کننده جرم ویژه ظاهری را کاهش و پایداری خاکدانه و کربن آلی را افزایش داد. کم‌ترین مقدار جرم ویژه ظاهری در تیمار­های هیدروژل و زغال زیستی در زمان 126 روز و در تیمار پلیمر پلی­وینیل­استات در زمان 21 روز مشاهده شد. بیش‌ترین مقدار کربن آلی و پایداری خاکدانه در تیمار هیدروژل در زمان 126 روز مشاهده شد. در تیمار هیدروژل با گذشت زمان، پایداری خاکدانه و نگهداشت رطوبت افزایش یافت. اما نگهداشت رطوبت تیمار پلیمر­ پلی­وینیل­استات با گذشت زمان کاهش یافت. بیوپلیمر جاذب رطوبت جایگزین مناسبی برای پلیمر­های سوپر جاذب مصنوعی است؛ زیرا علاوه بر افزایش نگهداشت رطوبت و مواد آلی خاک سبب افزایش پایداری خاکدانه­ها نیز گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the Effect of Polyvinyl Acetate Polymer, Acid Biochar and Wheat Straw Cellulose Hydrogel on Water Retention Capacity in a Sandy Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Nooralivand 1
  • ahmad farrokhian firouzi 2
1 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 shahid chamran university of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

The drought crisis reveals the necessity of saving and optimal use of water in various sectors, especially in agriculture. One of the strategies to optimize use of water resources is the application of organic materials and natural (bio) and synthetic sorbents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyvinyl acetate polymer, wheat straw biochar and cellulose hydrogel on the water retention capacity (at suctions 33, 100, 300, 500 and 1500 kPa), bulk density, aggregate stability and amount of organic carbon in the sandy soil. Therefore, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. A sandy soil was collected from the southeast Ahvaz. The factors included (1) amendment (Polyvinyl Acetate polymer, biochar and cellulose hydrogel of wheat straw), (2) amendment concentration (Polyvinyl Acetate polymer: 5 and 10 g/L, biochar and cellulose hydrogel: 1 and 3 % w/w) and (3) time duration (21, 42, 63 and 126 days). The results showed that all experimental treatments, at all pressure heads, increased soil water retention significantly (p<0.01). The addition of amendments reduced the soil bulk density and increased the organic carbon and aggregate stability. Minimum bulk density was observed in the cellulose hydrogel and biochar treatments at 126-days and in the polyvinyl acetate polymer at 21-days. Maximum organic carbon and aggregate stability were observed in the cellulose hydrogel treatment at 126-days. In hydrogel treatments with passing time, aggregate stability and water retention increased, but water retention of polyvinyl acetate polymer decreased with increasing time. Moisture absorbent biopolymer is a suitable replace to super absorbent synthetic polymers because not only increase soil organic matter but also enhance soil aggregate stability and water retention capacity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-polymer
  • Soil Structure
  • Sandy Soil
  • Synthetic-polymer
  • Water Retention
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