نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم خاک، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار

4 - دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

ارزیابی­های گوناگون نشان داده­اند که عملیات کشاورزی می­تواند پیامدهای زیانبار بر کیفیت خاک­ها داشته باشد. بنابراین، آگاهی از کیفیت خاک در عرصه­های کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، برای مدیریت بهینه زمین­ها و رسیدن به بیشینه بهره­وری اقتصادی، امری ضروری است. در این پژوهش، تاثیر دراز مدت مدیریت­های مرسوم کشاورزی در سه منطقه در استان آذربایجان غربی شامل زیوه، نازلو و سیرداغی با خصوصیات و ویژگی­های رطوبتی مختلف بودند. از هر منطقه، چهار نمونه خاک (شامل دو نمونه خاک تحت کشت و دو نمونه خاک غیرزراعی همجوار آن­ها به­عنوان شاهد) برداشت و بر برخی ویژگی­های زیستی و شیمیایی خاک بررسی گردید. مقادیر تنفس پایه، تنفس ناشی از سوبسترا، زیست توده میکروبی، جمعیت میکروبی و جمعیت نماتدها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که کشت و کار در مناطق مورد بررسی، پارامترهای تنفس پایه، تنفس ناشی از سوبسترا، جمعیت میکروبی و جمعیت نماتدها را کاهش داد. همچنین، در کاربری غیر زراعی، مقادیر تنفس پایه (25/1، 1/1 و 75/1) و تنفس ناشی از سوبسترا (8/1، 2/2 و 4/1) به تفکیک مناطق مورد مطالعه (به ترتیب سیرداغی، نازلو و زیوه) نسبت به مناطق زراعی افزایش نشان داد. بطوری­که در خاک با کاربری غیر زراعی در منطقه سیرداغی، مقادیر تنفس پایه، تنفس ناشی از سوبسترا، شاخص قابلیت دسترسی به کربن و جمعیت نماتدها به­ترتیب 25/1، 8/1، 6/1 و 28/3 برابر بیشتر از کاربری زراعی بود. بطور کلی می­توان نتیجه گرفت که عملیات کشت و کار غیرعلمی و عدم افزایش مواد آلی، سبب افت ویژگی­های زیستی، و در دراز مدت، کاهش کیفیت خاک را به دنبال خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Properties: A Case Study in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • delniya bapiri 1
  • habib khodaverdiloo 2
  • mohsen barin 3
  • youbert ghoosta 4

1 Graduate Student of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Associate Prof. of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

4 Associate Prof. of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Pathology, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

چکیده [English]

Various evaluations have shown that agricultural operations can have a dramatic impact on the quality of soils. Therefore, knowledge of soil quality in agricultural and natural resources is essential for optimal land management and achieving maximum economic efficiency. In this research, the long-term effects of conventional agricultural management in three areas of Ziveh, Nazlo, and Sirdagh with different moisture properties. Four soil samples (including two cultivated soil samples and two adjacent un-cultivated soil samples as control) were collected from each region in West Azerbaijan province. Some soil biological and chemical properties were investigated. Basal respiration rates, respiration due to substrate, microbial biomass, microbial population and nematode populations were investigated. The results showed that cultivation reduced basal respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial population and nematode population in the studied areas. Also in uncultivated land use basal respiration rates (1.25, 1.1 and 1.75) and substrate respiration (1.8, 2.2 and 1.4) increase related to cultivated in the studied areas Sirdaghi, Naslow and ziveh, respectively. Basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, carbon availability index and population of nematodes were 1.25, 1.8, 1.6 and 3.28 times higher in uncultivated related to cultivated in Sirdaghi, respectively. In general, it can be concluded that unscientific cultivation operations and lack of increasing organic matter will result in a loss of biological properties, and in the long- time result a decrease in soil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivated
  • Soil degradation
  • soil quality
  • Soil respiration
  • Uncultivated
Alexander M. M. 1982. Most probable number method for microbial populations. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Agronomy Society American Madison, 815-820.
Alvarez R.., and Lavado R.S. 1998. Climate, organic matter and clay content relationships in the Pampa and Chaco soils, Argentina. Geoderma, 83: 127–141.
Anderson J.P.E. 1982. Soil respiration., A. L. and R. H. Mille (Eds.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part2, Chemical and Micro Biological Properties, American Society Agronomy, Madison, WI: 831-871.
Anderson J.P.E., and Domsch K.H. 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 10: 215-221.
Anderson T.H.  2003. Microbial eco-physiological indicators to assess soil quality. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 98: 285–293.
Anderson T.H., and Domsch K.H. 1990. Application of eco-physiological quotients on microbial biomasses from soils of different cropping histories. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22: 251–255.
Ardakani A. S., Tanha Mafi Z., Mokaram Hesar A., and Mohammadi Goltappeh E. 2014. Relationship between Soil Properties and Abundance of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in Citrus Orchards, Kohgilouyeh va Boyerahmad Province.  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16: 1699-1710.
Barrios E., Buresh R.J., and Sprent, J.I., 1996. Organic matter in soil particle size and density fractions from maize and legume cropping systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28: 185–193.
Barrios E., Kwesiga F., Buresh R.J., and Sprent J.I., 1997. Light fraction soil organic matter and available nitrogen following trees and maize. Soil Science Society American Journal, 61: 826–831.
 Batra L., and Manna M. C. 1997.Dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass carbon in salt‐affected soils of semiarid and arid regions. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11: 295-303. 
Beheshti ale agha, A., Raeisi, F., and Golchin, A. 2011. Effect of land use change from pasture to agriculture on soil microbiological and biochemistry indices. Journal water and soil, 25: 548-562. (In Persian)
Bissonnais, Y., D., Blavet, G., Denoni, J. Asseline and C. Chenu. 2007. Erodibility of Mediterranean vineyard soils: relevant aggregate stability methods and significant soil variables. European Journal of Soil Science. 58: 188–195.
Bongers T, and Bongers M. 1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Applied Soil Ecology, 10:239–251.
Chen, M.M., Y.G. Zhu, Y.H. Su, B.D. Chen, B.J. Fu, and P. Marschner. 2006. Effects of soil moisture and plant interactions on the soil microbial community structure, European Journal of Soil Biology, 43 (2): 31-38.
Cheng W., Coleman D.C., Carroll C.R., and Hoffman C.A. 1993. In situ measurements of root respiration and soluble carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 25: 1189-1196.
Dai J., Becquer T., Rouiller J., H. Reversat G., Bernhard F., Reversat J., Ahmani N., and Lavelle P. 2004. Influence of heavy metals on C and N mineralization and microbial biomass in Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contaminated soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 25, 99-109.
Doran J.W., and Parkin T.B. 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. In Doran J.W., Coleman D.C., Bezdicek D.F., and Stewart B.A. (Eds.) ‘Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment’. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication No 35, Madison, WI., pp. 3-21.
Elliott E.T. 1997. Rationale for developing bioindicators of soil health. In: Pankhurst, C., Doube, B.M., Gupta, V.V.S.R. (Eds.), Biological Indicators of Soil Health. CAB International, New York. 49-78.

Foissner W. 1987. The micro-edaphon in eco-farmed and conventionally farmed dryland cornfields near Vienna (Austria). Biology Fertility Soils, 3:45 – 49.

Freckman D. W., and. Ettema C. H. 1993. Assessing nematode communities in agroecosystems of varying human intervention. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 45:239-261.

Gupta V.V.S.R., and Yeates G.W. 1997. Soil microfauna as bioindicators of soil health. Pp. 201–233. in: C. Pankhurst B. M. Doube, and V.V.S.R. Gupta, eds. Biological indicators of soil health. New York, NY: CAB International.
Herrick J.E. 2000. Soil quality: an indicator of sustainable land management. Applied Soil Ecology, 15: 75-83.
Islam K.R., and Weil R.R. 2000. Soil quality indicator properties in mid- Atlantic soils as influenced by conservation management. Soil and Water Conservation JournaJournal, 55: 69-78.
Jenkins W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 48: 692-695.
Jenkinson D.S., and Ladd J.M. 1981. Microbial Biomass in Soil: Measurement and Turnover. In: Paul E.A. and Ladd J.M., Eds., Soil Biochemistry, Dekker, New York, 415-471.
Jenkinson D.S., and Powlson D.S. 1976. The effect of biocidal treatments on metabolism in soil, V. A method for measuring soil biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8:189-202.
Jia B. R., Zhou G. Z., Wang F. Y., Wang Y. H., and Weng E. 2007. Effects of grazing on soil respiration of leymus chinensis steppe. Climatic Change, 82: 211-223.
Karimi H., Jalalian A., Mehnatkesh a., and Honarjo N. 2012. Effect of land use change on soil microbial respiration index and air warming in central Zagros. International Conference on Environmental Crises in Iran and its Improvement Strategies, Feb. 25 and 26, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Science and Research Branch. (In Persian)
Kazemaliloo S., and Rasoli-Sadaghiani M.H. 2013. Evaluation of some biological indices of soil in presence of microorganisms promoting plant growth and cadmium contamination of soil. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 44:57-68. (In Persian)
Kieft T.L., and Rosacher L.L. 1991. Application of respiration and adenylate-based soil microbiological assay to deep subsurface terrestrial sediments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 23: 563-568.
Killham K. 1994. Soil Ecology, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Kiss S., Dragan- Bularda M. And Radulescu D. 1975. Biological significance of enzymes in soil, Ecosystems and Environment, 98: 285-293.
Kladivko E. J., and Clapperton M. J. 2011. Soil biology. In Hatfield J. L. and Sauer T. J., Soil management: Building a stable base for agriculture (pp: 145-160). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America.
Kooijman A.M., and Smit A. 2009. Paradoxical differences in N – dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material? European Journal of Forest Research, 128(6): 555-565.
Lakzian A., Sheybani S., Bahadorian M., and Shaddel L. 2005. Soil Microbiology. 1st Edition. Sokhan Gostar Publication, Mashhad, Iran. 556 pp.
Lee E., and Banks M.K. 1993. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation: A microbial study, Journal. Environmental Science, 28 (10): 2187.
Li X.G., Li F.M., Zed R., Zhan Z.Y., and Singh B. 2007. Soil physical properties and their relations to organic carbon pools as affected by land use in an alpine pastureland. Geoderma, 139: 98–105.
Magdoff E, and R.R. Weil. 2003. Strategies for managing organic matter. In: E Magdoff and R.R. Weil (Eds.), Functions and Management of Soil Organic Matter in Agroecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Mc Lean E.O. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page, A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2-Chemical and microbiological properties. (2nd Ed.). Agronomy. 9: 199-223.
Nannipieri P. 1994. The potential use of soil enzymes as indicators of productivity, sustainability and pollution. In: Pankhurst, C.E., Doube, B.M., Gupta, V.V.S.R., and Grace, P.R. Soil Biota: Management in Sustainable Farming Systems. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne, Australia. 238-244.
Neher D.A., Wu J., Barbercheck M.E., Anas O. 2005. Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures. Applied Soil Ecology, 30: 47-64.
Nelson R.E., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Total carbon. Organic carbon and organic matter. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (Eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis Part2. 2nd. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. 539-579.
Pathak H., Singh R., Bhatia A. and Jain N. 2004. Recycling of rice straw to improve crop yield and soil fertility and reduce atmospheric pollution. In: Proceedings of the Conference Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Rice-Based Production Systems. Torino, Italy, 13–15 September, pp. 477–483.
Raiesi F. 2007. The conversion of overgrazed pastures to almond orchards and alfalfa cropping systems may favor microbial indicators of soil quality in Central Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 121: 309–318.
Raiesi F., and Asadi E. 2006. Soil microbial activity and turnover in native grazed and ungrazed rangelands in a semiarid ecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 43:76-82.
Rasouli-Sadaghiani M.H., Karimi S., Khodaverdiloo H., Barin M. and Banj-Shafiei A. 2016. Impact of forest ecosystem land use on soil physico-chemical and biological indices. Iranian Journal of Forest, 8: 167-178. (In Persian)
Rezapour S., and Samadi A. 2012. Assessment of inceptisols soil quality following long-term cropping in a calcareous environment. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184 (3), 1311-1323.
Rhoades J.D. 1996. Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. P. 417-436. In Sparks, D. L. et al., Method of soil analysis. Published by: Soil Science Society of American. Inc. Am Society. Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Swift M.J., and Woomer P.L. 1993. Organic matter and the sustainability of agricultural systems: definition and measurement. In: Mulongoy, K., Merckx, R. (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability in Tropical Agriculture. Wiley, UK, pp. 3–18.
Tan Z., and Lal R. 2005. Carbon sequestration potential estimates with changes in land use and tillage practice in Ohio, USA. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 111(1):140-152. 
Walker C., and Lin H.S. 2008. Soil property changes after four decades of wastewater irrigation: A landscape perspective. Catena, 73: 63-74.
Wardle D.A., and Parkinson D. 1990. Interactions between microclimatic variables and the soil microbial biomass. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 9: 273-280.