تأثیر مالچ آلی آفتابگردان بر خصوصیات هیدرولیکی و مکانیکی خاک در انرژی‌های تراکمی مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشگاه ارومیه، گروه مهندسی آب

چکیده

مالچ­های آلی باعث بهبود خصوصیات هیدرولیکی و مکانیکی خاک­های زراعی شده و از مهم­ترین اقدامات خاک­ورزی محسوب می­شوند. در این پژوهش، تأثیر بقایای پته آفتابگردان بر خواص مکانیکی، هیدرولیکی و فیزیکی خاک در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی بررسی شد. آزمایش­ها به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی، در سه سطح مالچ 0، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار، سه سطح انرژی تراکمی 41/121، 83/242 و 25/364 کیلوژول بر مترمکعب و در سه تکرار توسط دستگاه تست تراکم به روش پراکتور انجام شد. مطابق نتایج در انرژی تراکمی 41/121 کیلوژول بر مترمکعب، چگالی ظاهری خاک خشک حاوی 10 و 20 تن مالچ در هکتار نسبت به خاک بدون مالچ، به­ترتیب 85/2 و 1/5 درصد کاهش یافت. هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک نیز به­ترتیب 794 و 905 درصد، ظرفیت زراعی 29/5 و 01/7 درصد و رطوبت پژمردگی دائم نیز 34/2 و 27/10 درصد افزایش یافتند. علاوه بر این، در انرژی تراکمی 25/364 کیلوژول بر مترمکعب، نتایج مشابهی مشاهده شد. به­طوری­که در خاک حاوی 10 و 20 تن مالچ در هکتار نسبت به خاک بدون مالچ، چگالی ظاهری خشک به­ترتیب 87/1 و 48/4 درصد کاهش و هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع به­ترتیب 200 و 300 درصد، ظرفیت زراعی 79/2 و 31/7 درصد و نقطه پژمردگی دائم نیز 56/7 و 43/14 درصد افزایش داشتند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که مالچ پته آفتابگردان، خصوصیات هیدرولیکی و مکانیکی خاک را در انرژی­های تراکمی مختلف بهبود می­بخشد و با افزایش انرژی تراکمی، مقادیر بهبود این خصوصیات، کاهش می­یابند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experimental Study of Sunflower Organic Mulch Effect on Soil Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties under Different Compaction Energy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Noorali Haghdoust 1
  • Vahid Rezaverdinejad 2
  • Majid Montaseri 1
1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران
2 Water Eng., Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Organic mulches improve the hydraulic and mechanical properties of agricultural soils and are one of the most important tillage practices. In this research, the effects of sunflower pate residue were studied on mechanical, hydraulic and physical properties of soil in laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out in the form of completely randomized design factorial at three levels of organic mulch including 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and three levels of compaction energy including 121.41, 242.83 and 364.25 kJ m-3 via the Proctor's density test apparatus with three replicates. According to the results in the compaction energy of 121.41 kJ m-3, the dry soil bulk density with mulch of 10 and 20-ton ha-1 decreased to 2.85% and 5.1% compared to the soil without mulch. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased to 794% and 905%, field capacity 5.29% and 7.01%, and permanent wilting point 2.34% and 10.27% respectively. In the compaction energy of 364.25 kJ m-3 similar results were observed. So that, in soil containing 10 and 20 ton ha-1 of mulch, compared to the soil without mulch, the dry bulk density decreased to 1.87% and 4.48% and the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased to 200% and 300%, the field capacity 2.79% and 7.31% and the permanent wilting point 7.56% and 14.43% respectively. The results of this study showed that Sunflower pate mulch improves the mechanical, hydraulic and physical properties of soil under different compaction energies, and with increasing compaction energy, the amount of improvement these characteristics decreases.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry bulk density
  • Sunflower pate organic mulch
  • saturated hydraulic conductivity
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