نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر ترکیبات گوگردی بر توزیع شکل‌های معدنی فسفر در یک خاک آهکی، آزمایش خوابانیدن به­صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 5 تیمار در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: شاهد (بدون افزودن ترکیبات گوگردی)، سولفات آلومینیوم  (Al2(SO4)3)، سولفات آهن (FeSO4)، باکتری تیوباسیلوس + گوگرد  (S+Ti)و اسید سولفوریک (H2SO4) در سطح 2 درصد وزنی بودند. تیمارها به­مدت دو هفته در دمای ثابت 1±25 درجه سانتی­گراد قرار داده­شدند و سپس فسفر قابل­استفاده (Olsen-P) و توزیع شکل­های فسفر به روش عصاره­گیری دنباله­ای تعیین گردیدند. کاربرد ترکیبات گوگردی موجب تغییرات معنی‌دار (p≤0.05) در میزان فسفر قابل استفاده (P-Olsen) و شکل‌های معدنی فسفر (Ca2-P ,Ca8-P ,Al-P ,Fe-P ,Ca10-P) نسبت به شاهد شدند. فسفر قابل­استفاده (P-Olsen) در اصلاح­کننده­های اسید سولفوریک، سولفات ‌آلومینیم و گوگرد+ تیوباسیلوس نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب باعث 240، 70 و 50 درصد افزایش یافت. همچنین این اصلاح­کننده­ها باعث شدند شکل‌های نامحلول فسفر اکتاکلسیم فسفات و آپاتیت بطور معنی­دار کاهش یافته و به شکل‌های محلول‌تر دی‌کلسیم فسفات و فسفر قابل­استفاده تبدیل شوند. اما سولفات‌آهن منجر به کاهش 30 درصدی فسفر قابل­استفاده و افزایش 4 درصدی آپاتیت نسبت به شاهد شد. نتایج مطالعات همبستگی نشان داد که فسفر قابل استفاده همبستگی معنی­دار با دی‌کلسیم‌فسفات، اکتاکلسیم‌فسفات، آپاتیت و فسفر باقیمانده داشت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان­دهنده تأثیر ترکیبات گوگردی بر توزیع فسفر در شکل‌های مختلف بود، بنابراین انتظار می‌رود که منابع گوگردی بر قابلیت استفاده و شیمی فسفر تاثیر داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different sources of sulfur on distribution of inorganic phosphorus forms in a calcareous soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahriar Pashapour 1
  • Neda Moradi 3

1 Department of Soil Science, Urmia University, Urmia

3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of different sources of sulfur on inorganic phosphorus fractions in a calcareous soil, an incubation experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments in three replications. Treatments were including: control (without sulfur compounds), Al2(SO4)3, FeSO4, S + Ti (sulfur + thiobacillius) and H2SO4 at 2% (w/w). Amendments were incubated at 25±1 °C for a period of 12 days. Then, available-P (Olsen-P) and different forms of inorganic phosphorus were determined by sequential extraction method. The application of sulfur compounds caused significant changes (p≤0.05) in the amount of P-Olsen and inorganic forms of phosphorus (Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Al-P, Fe-P, Ca10-P) compared to control. The amount of available phosphorus in H2SO4, Al2(SO4)3 and S + Ti compared to control increased 240, 70 and 50%, respectively. Also, these amendments caused to insoluble forms of phosphorus, Ca8-P and Ca10-P, significantly reduced and in more soluble forms of Ca2-P and available-P could be used. In the amendments, FeSO4 caused 30% decrease in available-P and 4% increase in apatite compared to control. The results of correlation studies showed that available phosphorus (Olsen extracted phosphorus) had a significant correlation with Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Ca10-P and residual-P; the results of this study showed the effect of sulfur compounds on the distribution of phosphorus in different forms, so it is expected that Sulfur sources affect the usability and phosphorus chemistry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sulfur
  • Thiobacillius
  • Inorganic phosphorus fractions
  • Calcareous soils
  • Available-P
Abdullahi M. 2010. Distribution of phosphorus minerals in calcareous soils under sugar beet cultivation and neighboring non-agricultural land in West Azarbaijan province. Master thesis. Urmia University. (In Persian)
Adhami A., Chafteh M., Ronaghi A., and Karimian N. 2005. Investigating different forms of phosphorus in several selected lime soils of the province. Proceedings of the 9th Iranian Soil Science Congress. (In Persian)
Al-Khateeb I.K., Raihan M. J., and Asker S.R. 1986. Phase equilibria and kinetics of orthophosphate in some Iraqi soils. Soil science, 141(1): 31-37.
Bertr I., Holloway R.E., Armstrong R.D., and McLaughlin M.J. 2003. Chemical characteristics of phosphorus in alkaline soils from southern Australia. Soil Research, 41 (1): 61-76.
Besharati H., and Saleh Rastin N. 1999. Investigation of the effect of inoculation of Thiobacillus with sodium on increasing P absorption capacity. Journal of Soil and Water Science, 13: 23-29.
Chang S.C., and Juo S.R. 1963. Available phosphorus in relation to forms of dissection of root formation in maize (Zea mays L.) reveals root-type specific developmental programs. Annals of Botany, 93: 359-368.
Chen Y., Rekha P., Arun A., Shen F., Lai W.A., and Young C. 2006. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Applied Soil Ecology, 34: 33-41.
Chen Z., Ma S., and Liu L.L. 2008. Studies on phosphorus solubilizing activity of a strain of phosphobacteria isolated from chestnut type soil in China. Bioresource Technology, 99: 6702–6707.
Dahiya, S.S., and M. Singh. 1976. Effect of salinity, alkalinity and iron application on the availability of iron, manganese, phosphorus and sodium in pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop. Plant and Soil, 44: 697-702.
Garcia J.R.O. 1991. Isolation and characterization of aciditiobacillus thiooxidans and aciditiobacillus ferrooxidans from mineral mines. Revista demicrobiologia, 20: 1-6.
Grotz N., and Guerinot, M.L. 2002. Limiting nutrients: an old problem with new solutions? Current opinion in plant biology, 5(2): 158-163.
Jiang B., and Gu Y. 1989. A suggested fractionation scheme of inorganic phosphorus in calcareous soils. Fertilizer Research, 20(3): 159-165.
Kuchaki A., Soltani A., and Azizi M.1997. Plant Ecophysiology. Mashhad University Press, 278p.
Lindsay W. L. 1982. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., NewYork.
Malakouti M. J., Moshiri, F., and Ghaibi, M. N. 2005. Optimum Levels of Nutrients in Soil and Some Agronomic and Horticultural Crops. Soil and Water Research Institue. Technical Bulletin, No.405. (In Persian)
Mehra P., Pandey B.K., and Giri J.  2015. Genome-wide DNA polymorphisms in low phosphate tolerant and sensitive rice genotypes. Scientific Reports, 5: 1-14.
Mirzapour M.H., Khavazi K., and Naeini M.R. 2017. Effect of Sulfur, Thiobacillus and Phosphorous application on Canola Yield and Some Soil Chemical Characteristics. Journal of Soil Biology, 5(2): 109- 122. (In Persian)
Modaihsh A.S., Al-Mustafa W.A., and Metwally A.I. 1989. Effect of elemental sulphur on chemical changes and nutrient availability in calcareous soils. Plant and soil, 116(1): 95-101.
Mostashari M., and Ardalane M.M. 2009. Distribution of phosphorus mineral formations and its relationship with soil properties in some soils of Kerman province. Journal of Soil Science, Soil and Water Sciences, 23: 22 – 11. (In Persian)
Najafi N., and Towfighi H. 2008. Changes in pH, EC and concentration of phosphorus in soil solution during submergence and rice growth period in some paddy soils of north of Iran. International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. Turkey, pp. 555-567.
Najafi N., and Towfigi H. 2011. The effect of moisture regime and phosphorus fertilizer on absorbable phosphorus and mineral phosphorus forms in some soils in the north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research (Iranian Agricultural Sciences), 42 (2): 257-269. (In Persian)
Najafi N., and Towfigi H. 2006. Effects of rhizosphere of rice plant on the inorganic phosphorous fractions in the paddy soils of north of Iran: 1-Native soil phosphorus fractions. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (5): 919-935. (In Persian)
Olsen S.R., Cole C.V., Watanabe F.S., and Dean L.A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA. Cire. 939.U.S. Gov.Print office, Washington, DC.
Pratt P.F. 1961. Phosphorus and Aluminum Interactions in the Acidification of Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 25(6): 467-469.
Rayment G.E., and Higginson F.R. 1992. Oxalat – extractable Fe and Al. In “Australian Laboratory Hand book of soil and water chemical methods”. In kata press, 22: 137-151.
Rongzhong Y., Wright A.L., McCray J.M., Reddy K.R., and Young L. 2010. Sulfur-induced changes in phosphorus distribution in Everglades Agricultural Area soils. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, 87(1):127-135.
Rosa M.C., Muchovej J.J., and Alwarez J.V.H. 1989. Temporal relations of phosphorus fractions in an oxisol amended with rock phosphate and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53:1096-1100.
Ryan J., and Stroehlein J.L. 1979. Sulfuric Acid treatment of calcareous soils: effects on phosphorus solubility, inorganic phosphorus forms and plant growth. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43(4): 731-735.
Salimpour S., Khavazi K., Nadian H.E., and Besharati H. 2010. Effect of rock phosphate along with sulfur and microorganisms on yield chemical composition of canola. Iranian Journal of Soil Research (Formerly Soil and Water Science), 24: 9-19. (In Persian)
Samadi A., and Gilkes R.J. 1999. Phosphorus transformations and their relationships with calcareous soil properties of southern Western Australia. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63(4): 809-815.
Samadi A. 2003. A study on distribution of forms of phosphorus in calcareous soils of Western Australia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 5: 39-49.
Samavati M., and Hosseinpur A. 2011. Phosphorus fractions and availability in some calcareous soils in Hamedan province. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 15: 55. 127-138. (In Persian)
Samrit P., Insitute R., Mai C., Chanchareonsook J., Suwannarat C., and Tungkananuruk N. 2002. Changes of some chemical properties, inorganic phosphate fractions and available P in some paddy soils in Thail. In: 17 World congress of soil science, Bangkok (Thail), pp. 14-21.
Sánchez-Arias V., Fernández F.J., Villaseñor J., and Rodríguez L. 2008. Enhancing the co-composting of olive mill wastes and sewage sludge by the addition of an industrial waste. Bioresource Technology, 99(14): 6346-6353.
Susuki A., Lawton K., and Doll E.C. 1963. Phosphorus uptake and soil tests as related to forms of phosphorus in some michigan soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 27(4): 401-403.
Tiessen H., Stewart J.W.B., and Cole C.V. 1984. Pathways of phosphorus transformations in soils of differing pedogenesis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48(4): 853-858.
Vance C.P., Uhde-Stone C., and Allan D.L. 2003. Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securig a nonrenewable resource. New Phytologist, 157:423-447.
Verma L.N. 1993. Biofertiliser in agriculture. In: Thampan P.K. (Ed.), Organics in soil health and crop production. Peekay Tree Crops Development Foundation, Cochin, India, pp. 152-183.
Walky A., and Black I.A. 1934. An examination of degtgareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid in soil analysis. 1. Experimental. Soil Science Society American Journal, 79: 459-465.
Younessi-Hamzekhanlu M., Pashaei M., Khanmirzaei A., Shakourifar F., Esmaeilpour M., and Sabzi Nojedeh M. 2017. Thiobacillus, sulfur, and organic fertilizer effects on phosphorus absorption by Zea mays. Journal of Crop Science Research in Arid Regions, 1(2): 249-263.
Zhang D., Song H., Cheng H., Hao D., Wang H., Kan G., Jin H., and Yu D. 2014. The acid phosphatase-encoding gene GmACP1 contributes to soybean tolerance to low-phosphorus stress. PLOS Genetics, 10(1): e1004061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004061.
Zhang T.Q., MacKenzie A.F., Liang B.C., and Drury C.F .2004. Soil test phosphorus and phosphorus fractions with long-term phosphorus addition and depletion. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68(2): 519-528.