عنوان مقاله [English]
The preferential flow is enhanced by the nature of the soil structure and by providing a direct and rapid flow for transferring pollutants, leads to pollution of groundwater. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate and compare some quantitative and qualitative preferential flow indices in different soil structures in Lorestan province. The study was conducted on un distributed soil columns with three different structures namely: (Granular, Blocky, and Massive) and a distributed soil with 3 replicate in a completely randomized design. In order to the plot breakthrough curve in each soil structure, injections of bromide at a concentration of 50 mg/L were carried out using a tension infiltrometer device under tension of 15-millimeter to soil columns. The breakthrough curve of different structures was plotted and accordingly the quantitative parameters of the preferential flow such as the mean time of breakthrough curve ( ) and the skewness index of the breakthrough curve (S) were calculated. For the study the paths of preferential flow, the infiltration of the dye tracer and image processing in different soil columns were performed. The results showed that soil structure had a significant effect on preferential flow occurrence in different soils. The comparison of breakthrough curve shape for different structures, showed the occurrence of preferential flow in blocky and granular soils and non-occurrence of this phenomenon in massive and disturbed soils. Also, the index of mean breakthrough time (0.2 and 0.39) and the skewness of breakthrough curve (1.17 and 1.45), in blocky and granular structures respectively confirmed the occurrence of preferential flow in these soils. The results of image processing showed that the infiltration depth of the tracer material in blocky structure was 29, 62 and 70% higher than granular, massive and disturbed structures, which demonstrated the role of type and enhancement of structure on occurrence preferential flow.