نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 بیولوژی خاک- دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

4 گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

مصرف بی­رویه سموم دفع آفات در سال‌های اخیر و ادامه آن در آینده ممکن است اثرات زیانبار بر جامعه میکروبی خاک، به عنوان شاخص سلامت خاک و یکی از اجزای اصلی محیط زیست، داشته باشد. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی تأثیر سه حشره‌کش پرمصرف (دیازینون، کلروپیریفوس و ایمیداکلوپرید) بر شاخص‌های اکوفیزیولوژیک و شیمیایی خاک بود. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام شد که شامل فاکتور حشره‌کش در چهار سطح (سه نوع حشره‌کش متفاوت به همراه خاک شاهد، بدون مصرف حشره‌کش) و فاکتور زمان در سه سطح (قبل، سه ماه و شش ماه پس از کاربرد آفت‌کش) بود. غلظت حشره‌کش‌ها (1/0، 1 و 67/0) میلی­گرم در هر کیلوگرم خاک به ترتیب برای ایمیداکلوپرید، دیازینون و کلروپیریفوس بود. برخی از شاخص‌های زیستی و اکوفیزیولوژیک خاک در ابتدای آزمایش، سه و شش ماه پس از شروع آزمایش اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در اثر کاربرد حشره‌کش‌ها پس از گذشت سه ماه، شاخص‌های زیستی شامل فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز، بهرة متابولیکی، تنفس پایه، تنفس برانگیخته و همچنین کربن آلی نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 2/92 %، 7/46 %، 7/24 %، 8/15 % و 61/7 % کاهش داشته و شاخص‌های فعالیت آنزیم اوره‌آز، کربن زیتوده میکروبی، نیتروژن زیتوده میکروبی، نسبت کربن به نیتروژن زیتوده و بهرة میکروبی خاک نسبت به شاهد 67/6 %، 1/32 %، 6/15%، 5/16% و 9/58 % افزایش داشت. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که در بین حشره‌کش‌های مورد استفاده در این تحقیق کلروپیریفوس بیشترین و دیازینون کمترین تأثیر منفی را بر شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده داشته است. بکارگیری حشره‌کش‌های دیازینون، کلروپیریفوس و ایمیداکلوپرید حداقل در کوتاه مدت تأثیر منفی بر شاخص‌های اکوفیزیولوژیک خاک دارد. همچنین حساس‌ترین شاخص‌ها در تعیین تأثیر منفی حشره‌کش‌ها بر جامعۀ میکروبی خاک، فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز، بهرة متابولیکی، تنفس برانگیخته و تنفس پایه بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid Insecticides on some Biological Indices of Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akhtar Eghtesadi 1
  • Akbar Ghavidel 2
  • Ali Ashraf Soltani Toolarood 3
  • Meraj Sharari 4

1 Former M.A student Soil Biology and Biotechnology college of Agriculture and Natural Resources of University Mohaghegh Ardabili

2 Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

3 هیات علمی

4 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

چکیده [English]

The excessive use of pesticides in recent years and their continuation in the future may have harmful effects on the microbial population of the soil, as an indicator of soil health and one of the main components of the environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three mostly used insecticides (Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid) on ec-ophysiological and chemical indices of soil. The experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design which included the pesticide factor at four levels (three insecticides plus control soil) and time factor at three levels (before, three months and six months after pesticide application). Concentrations of insecticides (0.1, 1 and 0.67) mg per kilogram of soil were used for imidacloprid, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Some biological and ec-ophysiological indices of the soil were measured at the beginning of the experiment, three and six months after the beginning of the experiment. The results showed that, the application effect of insecticides after three months affected the biological indices including dehydrogenase enzyme activity, metabolic quotient, basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration and also organic carbon decreased compared to the control -92.2%, -46.7%, -24.7%, 15.8% and -7.61%, respectively and urease enzymes activity, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and soil microbial quotient increased compared to control 6.67%, 32.1%, 15.6%, 16.5% and 58.9. Also, the results showed that among the insecticides Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon had the highest and the least negative effect on the indices, respectively. The application of insecticides Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid at least in the short term, had a negative effect on soil ecophysiological indices and the most sensitive indices for determining the negative impact of insecticides on the soil microbial community were the dehydrogenase enzyme activity, metabolic quotient, substrate-induced respiration and basal respiration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pesticides
  • Soil quality index
  • Soil enzymatic activity
  • Soil biological activity
  • soil quality
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