عنوان مقاله [English]
Arsenic is a carcinogenic agent, which is found in water and soil resources at concentrations above the acceptable level and considered as an environmental threat. Soil and water contamination by arsenic is the most important route of its entry into the human food chain. Arsenic has been detected in both inorganic and organic forms in the environment which compared to organic forms, inorganic compounds of arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) are more toxic due to their higher solubility and mobility. Soil solid particles, especially iron (oxy)hydroxides and minerals considered as the main sinks of arsenic in soil, which its stability and mobility depend on environmental conditions such as pH, Eh and the presence of competing ions. Arsenic detoxification techniques are categorized into three physical, chemical and biological types. The low cost, environment-friendly, lack of toxic residue production, arsenic speciation and easy operation are the important factors that influence the choice of decontamination method. In this paper, the factors that affect the concentration and speciation of arsenic in soil and water are reviewed. In the following, the methods of arsenic decontamination of soil and water with emphasis on its adsorption and immobilization methods using natural, non-polluting, abundant and high adsorption capacitance materials are reviewed.